Akademik Görevler

  • Günümüz 2016

    Profesör

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi, Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Bölümü, Samsun

  • 2016 2010

    Doçent

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi, Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Bölümü, Samsun

  • 2010 1999

    Yardımcı Doçent

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi, Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Bölümü, Samsun

  • 1999 1995

    Araştırma Görevlisi

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi, Toprak Bölümü, Samsun

Eğitim Bilgileri

  • Doktora 1998

    Toprak Ana Bilim Dalı

    Ankara Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara

  • Yüksek Lisans 1995

    Toprak Ana Bilim Dalı

    Ankara Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Ankara

  • Lisans 1993

    Toprak Bölümü

    Ege Üniversitesi, Ziraat Fakültesi, İzmir

İdari Görevler

  • Günümüz 2016

    Uluslararası İlişkiler Birimi Başkanı

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Uluslararası İlişkiler Birimi

  • Günümüz 2016

    Yönetim Kurulu Üyesi

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Uzaktan Eğitim Merkezi

  • Günümüz 2016

    Dekan

    Ondokuz Mayis Universitesi Bafra Isletme Fakultesi

  • Günümüz 2012

    Genel Sekreter

    Avrasya Toprak Bilimi Dernekleri Federasyonu .

  • Günümüz 2012

    Editörler Kurulu Başkanı

    Eurasian Journal of Soil Science Editor-in-chief

  • Günümüz 2012

    Başkan Yardımcısı

    Türkiye Toprak Bilimi Derneği .

Araştırma Projeleri

  • image

    AGROBIGEN - 2016.01.01

    Nanoteknolojik yöntemler ile geliştirilen yeni nesi yaprak gübresinin Kazakistan koşullarında yazlık buğdayın (Triticum aestivum) verim, verim unsurları ve besin maddesi kapsamı üzerine etkisinin belirlenmesi

    Projedeki Görevi : Yürütücü

    Başlama/Bitiş Tarihi : 01.04.2016 -01.12.2016

    Destek Miktarı (TL) : 100.000,00

  • image

    TÜBİTAK-TEYDEB - 7151286

    Biyogaz üretim tesisi atıklarının tarımsal amaçlı kullanımına ilişkin proses tekniğinin geliştirilmesi ve tarımsal etkinliğinin belirlenmesi

    Projedeki Görevi : Danışman

    Başlama/Bitiş Tarihi : 01.01.2016-01.03.2017

    Destek Miktarı (TL) : 500.000,00

  • image

    TÜBİTAK - 104O556

    Organik tarımda yerli Azotobacter chroococcum suşlarının kullanım olanaklarının araştırılması ve mikrobiyal gübre üretimi

    Projedeki Görevi : Yürütücü

    Başlama/Bitiş Tarihi : 01.04.2005-01.04.2010 

    Destek Miktarı (TL) : 191.350,00

  • image

    TÜBİTAK - 107O128

    Fındık zurufu ve arıtma çamurunun solucanlar (Eisenia feotida) ile kompostlanması, elde edilen vermikompostun sera ve tarla koşullarında buğday (Triticum aestium) bitkisinin verim ve bazı toksik metal kapsamlarına etkisinin belirlenmesi

    Projedeki Görevi : Yürütücü

    Başlama/Bitiş Tarihi : 15.07.2007-15.07.2010 

    Destek Miktarı (TL) : 158.545,00

  • image

    TÜBİTAK - 111O698

    Atık fındık zurufunun mikrobiyal biyoteknolojik teknikler ile kompostlanması

    Projedeki Görevi : Yürütücü

    Başlama/Bitiş Tarihi : 01.05.2012-01.05.2015 

    Destek Miktarı (TL) : 332.350,00

  • image

    TÜBİTAK-TEYDEB - 309O664

    Sahada, Hızlı Toprak Analizi ve Gübreleme/Sulama Tavsiyesi Sistemi

    Projedeki Görevi : Danışman

    Başlama/Bitiş Tarihi : 01.01.2010-28.12.2012 

    Destek Miktarı (TL) : 2.161.643,16

  • image

    TÜBİTAK-TEYDEB - 3130992

    Toprakta Voltametrik Mikroelement Tayini ile Gübreleme Tavsiye Sistemi Geliştirilmesi

    Projedeki Görevi : Danışman

    Başlama/Bitiş Tarihi : 01.12.2013-31.12.2015

    Destek Miktarı (TL) : 994.207,48

Filtrele:

Benzo[a]pyrene degradation and bioaccumulation in soil-plant system under artificial contamination

Sushkova, S., Deryabkina, I., Antonenko, E., Kızılkaya, R., Rajput, V., Vasilyeva, G. 2018.
Science of The Total Environment 633: 1386–1391.

Abstract

The involvement of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) one of the most toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soil-plant system causes its potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity for human health. The aim of this article is benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) degradation and bioaccumulation in soil-plant system under artificial contamination in model experiment with Haplic Chernozem and that spiked with various doses of BaP (20, 200, 400 and 800 μg kg−1) equivalent to 1, 10, 20 and 40 levels of maximal permissible concentrations (MPC) planted with spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum). The experimental soil samples were planted every spring and incubated outdoor during 4 years. The express-method of subcritical water extraction was used for BaP extraction from samples. It was established the values of BaP period of semi-degradation in soil (T50, y) contaminated with 10, 20 and 40 MPC deviated from 1.4 to 1.8 years, while these values in low contaminated soils deviated from 2.9 to 5.4 years. It was found the BaP concentrations in plants depended on initial BaP contamination and reduced simultaneously with diminish of BaP concentration in the related spiked samples. Growing of spring barley in the BaP spiked soils lead to BaP accumulation in plants. The bioaccumulation factors for BaP in roots and vegetative part of barley plants (BAFr and BAFv respectively) fluctuated within 0.035–0.065 and 0.015–0.025 respectively at the 1st season and then reduced about twice to the 4th season. Meantime those values in control soils vice-versa increased twice from 0.03 and 0.01 respectively.

Chemical contamination in upper horizon of Haplic Chernozem as a transformation factor of its physicochemical properties

Minkina, T.M., Pinskii, D.L., Zamulina, I.V., Nevidomskaya, D.G., Gülser, C., Mandzhieva, S.S., Bauer, T.V., Morozov, I.V., Sushkova, S.S., Kızılkaya, R., 2018.
Journal of Soil and Sediments 18(6): 2418–2430.

Abstract

Purpose

The effect of Cu, Zn, and Pb high rates on the physical properties and organic matter of Haplic Chernozem (Clayic) (A1 horizon 0–20 cm) under model experimental conditions was studied.

Materials and methods

In a model experiment, soil samples of Haplic Chernozem (Clayic) were artificially contaminated with 2000 mg/kg of Cu, Zn, and Pb acetates added separately. The particle-size fraction, the microaggregates distribution, the structural status, the total content and fractional and group composition of organic matter, physico-mechanical properties were determined in soil without metals and soil contaminated with metals.

Results and discussion

At the soil contamination with Cu, Zn, and Pb, the content of organo-mineral colloids increased, which results to the increasing of the clay fraction content by 4.5% compared to the control. The analysis of the microaggregate size composition of the studied soil shows that the content of coarser aggregates (1–0.25 mm) increases and the content of finer (0.05–0.001 mm) aggregates decreases after the addition of HMs and correspond to the HMs series: Cu → Zn → Pb. A significant decrease in the coefficient of water stability in the control from 3.0 to 1.4–1.5 in the contaminated treatments. The structural status (estimated from total agronomically valuable aggregates) changes from excellent to good. The addition of Cu, Zn, and Pb to the soil affects the quantitative composition of organic matter. The contents of free and sesquioxide-bound humic acids and free fulvic acids increased. The contamination with Zn and Pb causes the aliphatization of organic matter.

Conclusions

Under conditions of model experiment, the contamination of Haplic Chernozem (Clayic) with high rates of Cu, Zn, and Pb leads to changes of the microaggregates distribution, the structural status, and the qualitative composition of organic matter.

Features of accumulation, migration, and transformation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil-plant system in a model condition of soil contamination

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Deryabkina (Turina), I., Mandzhieva, S., Zamuline, I., Bauer, T., Vasilyeva, G., Antonenko, E., Rajput, V., Kızılkaya, R., 2018.
Journal of Soil and Sediments 18(6): 2361–2367.

Abstract

Purpose

The investigation of accumulation, migration, and transformation features of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in a soil-plant system by using new ecologically friendly subcritical water extraction method is the purpose of this research.

Materials and methods

Studies were conducted on the soils and plants of the model experiment with carbonate heavy loamy chernozem and virgin, 0–20-cm topsoil, contaminated by different doses of BaP from 20 up to 800 mkg/kg. For the model experiment, the very popular agricultural plant spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum) was used as the test culture.

Results and discussion

In initially polluted soils, from 84 (at 20 mkg/kg) to 99% (at 200 mkg/kg) from the total added BaP concentration in the soil was found. After 1 year of incubation, the concentration of BaP in the soil decreased by 8–33%. Total BaP destruction for 2 years of the model experiment is 15–38% from its initial concentration in the soil. The concentration of BaP in plants increased in proportion to the increasing BaP content in the soil.

Conclusions

For the first time, the features of accumulation, migration, and transformation of BaP in a soil-plant system were studied in the conditions of the model experiment with ordinary chernozem carbonate. The content of BaP in the soil and plants of the model experiment increases in accordance with the level of soil pollution by BaP. A positive correlation between increasing BaP pollution level and soil and plant contamination was observed.

Monitoring of benzo[α]pyrene content in soils affected by the long-term technogenic contamination

Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Tyurina, I.G., Vasil’eva, G.K., Kızılkaya, R., 2017.
Eurasian Soil Science 50(1): 95-105.

Abstract

The regularities of benzo[α]pyrene (BaP) accumulation and distribution in chernozems (Haplic Chernozems), meadow-chernozemic soils (Haplic Chernozems (Stagnic)), and alluvial soils (Fluvisols) affected by the aerotechnogenic emissions from the Novocherkasskaya Electric Power Station (NEPS) were studied on the basis of long-term (2002–2011) monitoring data. A 5-km-wide zone stretching to the northwest from the electric power station and coinciding with the predominant wind direction was found to be most contaminated, with the maximum accumulation of BaP at about 1.6 km from the source. The coefficients of vertical BaP distribution between the layers of 0–5 and 5–20 cm closely correlated with the contents of physical clay, clay, and humus, and with the cation exchange capacity. The content of BaP in soils was shown to be indicative of the level of technogenic loads related to the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuels.

Monitoring of benzo[a]pyrene content in soils under the effect of long-term technogenic polution

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Turina, I., Mandzhieva, S.S., Bauer, T., Kızılkaya, R., Zamuline, I., 2017.
Journal of Geochemical Exploration 174: 100-106.

Abstract

The aim of the current work was to study the main tendencies in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in soils of the affected zone of the Novocherkassk regional power plant. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. Monitoring plots were established at different distances from the Novocherkassk regional power plant (1.0–20.0 km). Regularities in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in chernozemic, meadow-chernozemic, and alluvial soils under the effect of aerotechnogenic emissions from the Novocherkassk regional power plant have been revealed on the basis of long-term monitoring studies (from 2002 to 2011). The tendencies in the distribution and accumulation of BaP in the studied soils coincided during the 10 years of monitoring studies. It has been found the 5-km zone to the northwest from the power station, which coincides with the predominant wind direction, is most subjected to contamination by benzo[a]pyrene, with the maximum accumulation at a distance of about 1.6 km from the source. Dynamics of pollutant accumulation in soils depends on number of Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. The content of benzo[a]pyrene in the soil is an indicator of the technogenic load impact on the areas, for which the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuel are the major pollutants. A gradual decrease of the pollutant content in the soils was revealed during the period from 2002 to 2011. It explained by the significant decrease in the volume of pollutant emissions from the plant and the self-purification capacity of soils and mechanisms of benzo[a]pyrene degradation.

Changes of soil hydraulic properties during the decomposition of organic waste in a coarse textured soil

Gülser, C., Minkina, T., Sushkova, S., Kızılkaya, R., 2017.
Journal of Geochemical Exploration 174: 66-69.

Abstract

Hazelnut husk (HH) used as an organic waste was incorporated into a sandy clay loam soil with the rates of 0 (control), 2, 4 and 6% in order to investigate the changes of hydraulic properties, outflow electrical conductivity during the mineralization period for 16 weeks. Changes in soil physical properties and microbiological activity were determined at five different incubation periods (1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks) under the greenhouse conditions. HH application increased organic carbon (OC) content and basal soil respiration (BSR) in soil. Soil OC content had significant positive relations with ECs, F and significant negative relations with Vp, BD values. Basal soil respiration had significant positive relations with ECs, OC, AS and F. Outflow ECo showed significant negative correlations with Ks and Vp. Organic waste application into soil increased ECs, BSR, and F, but decreased Vp values. While the percentage of EC in bulk soil increased with HH application over the control, EC in outflow decreased at the end of the incubation. According to the path analyses results, BSR as an indicator of microbial activity in soil had the highest direct effect on Ks (44.16%) and ECo (51.84%). The highest indirect effects on soil hydraulic properties were usually determined via OC and BSR. Increasing ECs at 16th week of the incubation showed that decomposition products from HH might be fixed by micro aggregates. Electrical conductivity in 5 pore volumes outflow decreased with increasing Vp values.

Yield response of wheat and changes of microbial activities in indigenous Azotobacter chroococcum inoculated soils with different plant residue application

Kızılkaya, R., 2017.
6th International Symposium on Agricultural Sciences

Abstract

The objective of this study were (i) to determine yield response of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) in indigenous Azotobacter chroococcum inoculated soils with different plant residues application, (ii) to compare change of microbiological properties such as Basal Soil Respiration (BSR) and Microbial biomass (Cmic) in A.chroococcum inoculated soils with different plant residues such as tobacco waste, rice husk, soybean waste and wheat waste application, and (iii) to explore the best plant residue inoculated with A.chroococcum strain into the soil under greenhouse conditions. A pot experiment was carried out in the greenhouse with the wheat in order to investigate the effects of A.chroococcum inoculation with different four plant residues application. The experiment consisted of 10 treatments (plant residues with  A.chroococcum inoculation, plant residues without A. chroococcum inoculation, only A.chroococcum inoculation and a control treatment without inoculation and plant residue application) and 3 replications, and the pots were distributed in completely randomized design.  The experimental soil was filled in 5 L pots. Thirty seeds were sown in each pot and thinned to 15 plants per pot after the full emergence of the first leaf. Plants in pots were harvested 124 days after sowing. At the end of the experiments, samples were collected from the pots and determined of wheat yield and soil microbiological parameters.  Based on the research results, the grain and straw yield was increased in all the treatments and maximum increase was obtained from A.chroococcum inoculation with tobacco waste. The inoculation of A.chroococcum and plant residues into the soil produced different responses of soil microbiological properties. Generally, stimulatory effects of A.chroococcum with plant residues on Cmic and BSR in the soil were observed. The inoculation of A.chroococcum with wheat residue and tobacco waste caused statistically significant increases in BSR and Cmic in soil.

Identification of fungal communities from composting hazelnut husk

Kızılkaya, R., 2017.
6th International Symposium on Agricultural Sciences "AgroReS 2017" February 27 – March 2, 2017, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Book of Abstracts p.134.

Abstract

Considering the importance of fungal genera in producing compost from hazelnut husk which is an agricultural organic waste, this study aimed to identify the fungal species by molecular techniques. The goal of this study was to determine the fungi enabling the degradation of hazelnut husk and awkward some chemical properties of decomposing hazelnut husk which is an agricultural organic waste. For that purpose, 1m3 of hazelnut husk picked from hazelnut orchards was stacked on a land and left under aerobic conditions for fragmentation. The fungal strains which use hazelnut husk were detected in samples which were taken periodically for 2 years. Efficient cellulase-producing fungi were isolated from different sampling time in hazelnut husk composting process decayed lignocellulosic waste etc using different isolation strategies. Among the various isolates obtained from different environment, five different fungi were selected depending upon the diameter of clear zone produced in Carboxy methyl cellulose agar for further screening in liquid media and one potent strain NASC3 was identified as efficient cellulolytic fungi. Molecular identification of strain NASC3 was done by PCR amplification of 18s rDNA region using primers ITS4 and ITS5. The amplified products were sequenced and analyzed using ClustalW. The phylogenetic analysis of strain NASC3 showed and identified as Penicillium piceum IMI 392509T , Penicillium citrinum C1-1T , Emericella rugulosa 14T, Penicillium brasilianum KUC1433T , Acremonium sp. ATT196T,  Penicillium verruculosum 101119T, Penicillium piceum IMI 392509T and Aspergillus tubingensis SAB-B3C-TT.

Effect of different organic wastes on urease activity of maize (zea mays indendata) rhizosphere and root free soil

Kızılkaya, R., Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Gülser, C., 2017.
6th International Symposium on Agricultural Sciences "AgroReS 2017" February 27 – March 2, 2017, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Book of Abstracts p.135.

Abstract

This study was carried out in order to determine the effects of various organic wastes (tobacco production waste, wheat straw, tea waste and hazelnut husk) under greenhouse conditions on urease activity in clay loam soil and rhizosphere (Zea mays indandata) soil of maize plant. The organic wastes were thoroughly mixed with the soil at a rate equivalent to 50 g kg-1 on air-dried weight basis. Experimental design was randomized plot with the replications in greenhouse. The moisture content in soil was maintained around 60 % of maximum water holding capacity by weighing the pots every day. Changes in the urease activity (UAc) was determined in the soil and rhizosphere (Zea mays indendata) samples and root free soil taken in 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after the experiment was conducted. At the end of experiment, all organic waste added soil increased UAc in comparison with the control (P<0,01) at all experimental periods. Moreover, UAc in rhizosphere soil were higher than in root free soil at all organic waste application (P<0,01). Increased amount of organic wastes had different effects on UAc (P<0,01). The most increases are in the UAc in the soil treated with wastes of tea and waste of tobacco production with supplying of low initial C/N ratio compared to the other organic wastes.

Kombu çayı (Kombucha) ve kombu çayı üretim artığı karışık mikroorganizma kültürünün buğday bitkisinin verimi ile toprakların dehidrogenaz ve katalaz aktivitesi üzerine etkisi

Durmuş, M., Kızılkaya, R., 2016.
Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Dergisi 4(2), 76-82.

Özet
Bu çalışmada, kumlu tın (% 63.03 kum, % 21.14 silt, % 15.83 kil, 5.80 pH, %1.84 organik madde) ve tın (% 42.15 kum, % 42.35 silt, % 15.00 kil, 8.01 pH, %1.14 organik madde) bünyeli iki farklı toprağa artan seviyelerde ilave edilen kombu çayı ile kombu çayı üretim artığı liyofilize karışık mikroorganizma kültürünün buğday bitkisinin verimi ile toprakların dehidrogenaz ve katalaz aktivitesinde meydana getirdiği değişimin sera koşullarında belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Deneme, Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Bölümü araştırma serasında tamamen kontrollü koşullarda ve 250C’de, tesadüf parselleri deneme desenine göre kurulmuş ve yürütülmüştür Bu amaçla, her bir saksıya fırın kuru ağırlık üzerinden 3.5 kg toprak konulmuş, topraklara Kombu çayının 0, 10, 20, 30 ml/saksı düzeyindeki dozları ile liyofilize atık Kombu çayı kültürünün ise 0.25, 0.50 ve 0.75 gr/saksı dozları uygulanmıştır. Daha sonra saksılara pandas buğday çeşidi tohumları ekilmiş, saksılardaki toprakların nem içeriği her gün tartılarak tarla kapasitesi seviyesinde tutulmuş ve toplam 138 gün sonunda hasat gerçekleştirilmiştir. Hasattan hemen sonra her bir saksıdan alınan bitki örneklerinde dane ve sap verimi, toprak örneklerinde ise dehidrogenaz ve katalaz aktiviteleri belirlenmiştir. Sera denemesi sonunda, topraktan artan seviyelerde uygulanan Kombu çayı’nın hem kumlu tın hem de tın bünyeli toprakta artan dozlara bağlı olarak buğday verimini artırdığı, topraktan liyofilize edilerek uygulanan atık mikroorganizma kültürünün de buğday bitkisinin tane ve sap verimini artırdığı, artışın ise dozlar arasında çok önemli farklar içermediği, artışların kumlu tın bünyeli toprakta daha belirgin olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, topraklara uygulanan mamül Kombu çayı ve atık liyofilize Kombu çayı kültürünün toprak tekstürüne bağlı olarak değişmekle beraber toprakların dehidrogenaz ve katalaz aktivitelerinde artışlar meydana getirdiği belirlenmiştir. Kumlu tın bünyeli toprağa yapılan uygulamalarda tın bünyeli toprağa göre toprakların dehidrogenaz ve katalaz aktivitelerinde meydana gelen değişmelerin daha belirgin olduğu saptanmıştır.

Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate effects of the kombucha and lyophilized waste of kombucha culture on wheat plant yield, dehydrogenase and catalase enzyme activity of soils. This study was carried out under controlled conditions (25ºC) with randomized plot design on sandy loam (63.03% sand, 21.14% silt, 15.83% clay, 5.80 pH, 1.84% organic matter) and loam (42.15% sand, 42.35% silt, 15.00% clay, 8.01 pH, 1.14% organic matter) soil in the greenhouse of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition Department in Agricultural Faculty of Ondokuz Mayis University. For this purpose, pots were filled by the weight of 3.5 kg soil, and the amount of 0, 10, 20, 30 ml/pot of kombucha and 0.25, 0.50, and 0.75 ml/pot of lyophilized waste of kombucha culture. Then, pandas type of wheat seeds were planted to the pots, the moisture content of the soils was weighed every day and kept at field capacity. After 138 days, plants were harvested. The effects of kombucha and lyophilized waste of kombucha culture on the wheat crop were analyzed by evaluating yield performance of wheat croppe. Furthermore, the changes of dehydrogenase and catalase enzyme activity were determined in the soil samples taken from the each pot. At the end of the greenhouse experiment, it was observed that increases in the amount of kombucha and lyophilized waste of kombucha culture increased wheat yield and also caused an improvement of dehydrogenase and catalase enzyme activity of soils depending on the soil texture. Moreover, it is concluded that the improvements of the soil biological characteristics was more significant for sandy loamy soil than the loamy soil.

 

Hazelnut yield and soil nutrient contents ınfluenced by hazelnut husk compost using microbial biotechnological techniques

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Tarakçıoğlu, C., Sushkova, S., 2016.
5th International Symposium on Agricultural Sciences "AgroReS 2016", February 29 – March 3, 2016, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Book of Abstracts (ISBN 978-99938-93-37-0) p.131.

Abstract

Plant residue, a by-product of plant production systems, is an important biological resource, comprising approximately 50% of the total biomass of crops. It is estimated that a total of approximately 2 billion tons of residue are produced annually worldwide. The return of residue to the field is a useful cultural practice to improve both soil fertility and soil organic carbohydrate storage. Composting, as one method of residue return, is a widely acceptable alternative for converting waste into a more useful eco-friendly fertilizer and is known to improve soil fertility. With the increasing demand for organic fruits and vegetables, the return of composted residue to fields as organic manure has recently attracted attention of farmers and scientists due to the positive effects of soil amendment while reducing the use of synthetic fertilizer. The purpose of this work was to examine the influence of different doses of (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 t.da-1) composted hazelnut husk (CHH) using microbial biotechnological techniques to the two hazelnut orchard with different textures such as sandy loam and clay loam on the nutrient contents of soil and hazelnut yield. The results showed that hazelnut yield and nutrient contents were significantly affected by soil texture and CHH application doses. In general, CHH markedly increased the hazelnut yield and increased the contents of mineral nitrogen (NH4-N, NO3-N), available P, exchangeable cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na) and available micronutrient (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn). CHH significantly increased the aggregate stability of soil, and the hydraulic conductivity in the soil were notably heightened. Yield and yield characteristics, including the shelled hazelnut weight were significantly increased by CHH. According the results of field experiments, conducted with different texture types, focusing on the organic substance management and sustainability of the available nutrient contents in soil, it was clear from the evidence obtained by the research that the ideal CHH application was 5 ton per decare to increase the organic matter content by 2%.

Effect of organic waste application on outflow electrical conductivity and microbial activity of a coarse textured soil

Gülser, C., Minkina, T., Kızılkaya, R., Sushkova, S., 2016.
5th International Symposium on Agricultural Sciences "AgroReS 2016", February 29 – March 3, 2016, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Book of Abstracts (ISBN 978-99938-93-37-0) p.215.

Abstract

Hazelnut husk (HH) as an organic waste was incorporated into  a sandy clay loam soil with the rates of 0 (control), 2, 4 and 6% in order to investigate the effect of organic waste on hydraulic properties, outflow electrical conductivity and microbial activity during its mineralization period for 16 weeks. Experiment was conducted at five different incubation periods (1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 weeks) under the greenhouse conditions. HH application increased organic carbon (OC) content, soil respiration (SR), soil electrical conductivity (ECs), aggregate stability (AS), total porosity (F) and decreased bulk density (BD), saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks), pore water velocity (Vp), outflow electrical conductivity (ECo) in 5 pore volume effluent of the soil over the control. OC content gave the significant positive relations with ECs (0.635**), F (0.947**) and the significant negative relations with Vp (-0.529*), BD (-0.960**) values. Soil respiration had significant positive relations with ECs (0.887**), OC (0.864**), AS (0.522*) and F(0.856**). Outflow ECo showed significant negative correlations with Ks (-0.751**) and Vp (-0.777**). Increasing organic matter content in soil increased ECs, SR, and F, but decreased Vp values. According to path analyses of the data, SR or microbial activity had the highest direct effect on Ks (44.16%) and ECo (51.84%). The highest indirect effects on soil hydraulic properties were also determined via OC or SR. Increasing soil microbial activity due to mineralization of HH increased AS, F, ECs and decreased Ks and Vp during the incubation time. Electrical conductivity in 5 pore volume outflow increased with decreasing Ks and Vp.

Improving the agricultural decisions using remote sensing and land observation based decision support system

Ceyhan, V., Kızılkaya, R., Akça, İ., Demirsoy, H., Cemek, B., Köksal, E.S., 2016.
International Scientific and Research Content “Baitursynov Readings 2016”. April 15, 2016, Kostanay, Kazakhstan. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-601-7481-30-8) Vol.3, p.274-279.

Abstract

The study developed decision support system intended as a guide to practical action such as fertilizing, spraying and irrigation based on the meteorological data, remote sensing data sourced from satellite, ecological data, soil characteristics data, water characteristics data and economic data. The basic component of the agricultural management system were experience of the academicians on fertilizing, pesticide use, irrigation and economic side of production and mathematical algorithms suggested by agricultural scientist. Decision support system included the four different modules such as soil, water, plant protection and economy. It was expected that insurance company, banks, local institutions and farmers’ unions would be common users of the system. Suggested portable decision support system, AGROS, may increase the resource use efficiency and profitability in Turkish agriculture and then update to international level.

Effects of Azotobacter chroococcum inoculation with different organic wastes on yield of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

Durmuş, M., Kızılkaya, R., 2016.
International Scientific and Research Content “Baitursynov Readings 2016”. April 15, 2016, Kostanay, Kazakhstan. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-601-7481-30-8) Vol.3, p.288-292.

Abstract

This study is conducted under controlled conditions in the greenhouses, for the purpose of determination of effects of indigenous Azotobacter chroococcum RK 49 inoculation on the yield of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). For this purpose different types of organic wastes are added to the soil at the rate of 5%, and thus the organic matter content of the soil is increased. In some pots only the effects of organic wastes on the yield of wheat plant are determined, in some pots effects of addition of some organic wastes together with indigenous Azotobacter chroococcum RK 49 inoculation and only the effects of A.chroococcum inoculation on the yield of the wheat plant. At the end of study, it is found that both the addition of organic wastes and A.chroococcum inoculation has increased the yield of the wheat plant. At the end of the experiment, 237,8 kg/da grain productivity is gathered from the controlled application, 277kg/da grain yield is gathered from A.chroococcum inoculation application, which is increased 16,5% more compared to controlled application. It is also determined that, an increase in the yield has also occurred in only in the addition of organic waste applications, and highest productivity increase has occurred in the addition of 5% wheat straw. In addition, the highest yield is determined on the application of A.chroococcum inoculation made together with organic wastes addition, and in the all experiment application, the application that made highest increase in the yield of grains is determines as wheat straw + A.chroococcum inoculation application, which has increased the yield by 25,4%.

Biological attributes in soil quality for sustainable land management

Kızılkaya, R., Gülser, C., 2016.
International Scientific and Research Content “Baitursynov Readings 2016”. April 15, 2016, Kostanay, Kazakhstan. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-601-7481-30-8) Vol.3, p.292-295.

Abstract

Intensive agricultural practices causes decreases in soil fertility with decreasing soil physical chemical and biological quality. Management of biological soil quality indicators in soils shapes the dynamic part of soil physical and chemical quality. Basic biological soil quality indicators are microbial biomass C and N, soil respiration, enzymes and earthworms.  Recycling organic wastes in agricultural fields is important to improve soil quality with increasing biological activity of soils. The evaluation of minimum data set of soil quality indicators including biological parameters must be considered according to the basic agricultural practice or crop patern to sustainable land management systems.

Macro nutrient contents and some soil properties allocated to wheat production in Merzifon, Turkey

Kızılkaya, R., Akça, İ., Ceyhan, V., Cemek, B., Köksal, E.S., Demirsoy, H., 2016.
International Scientific and Research Content “Baitursynov Readings 2016”. April 15, 2016, Kostanay, Kazakhstan. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-601-7481-30-8) Vol.3, p.296-301.

Abstract

The study examined the Macro nutrient contents and some soil properties allocated to wheat production in Merzifon, Turkey.  Totally 56 different soil samples, 20 of them from irrigated farming conditions and 36 of them dry farming conditions, were analyzed. The pH values, electrical conductivity, organic matter, lime content, total N, available P and K were measured. Research results showed that land allocated to wheat production in Merzifon was slightly alkaline and non-saline. Their lime and organic matter contents was moderate, while that of N, P and K were low, moderate and high, respectively. Based on the correlation analysis, there were positive correlation between lime contents and pH and between total N and organic matter contents in the research area. The study suggests that contents of organic matter and total N should be increased and balance between the lime contents and pH should be controlled.

Benzo[a]pyrene accumulation in soils of technogenic emission zone by subcritical water extraction method

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Kızılkaya, R., Mandzhieva, S., Batukaev, A., Bauer, T., Gülser, C., 2016.
European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. April 17-22, 2016, Vienna, Austria. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol.18, EGU2016-957.

Abstract

The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with use of ecologically clean and effective subcritical water extraction method. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. In 2000, monitoring plots were established at different distances from the NPS (1.0–20.0 km). Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0–20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. This soil revealed the following physical and chemical properties: Corg–3.1-5.0%, pH–7.3-7.6, ECE–31.2-47.6 mmol(+)/100g; CaCO3–0.2-1.0%, the content of physical clay – 51-67% and clay – 3-37%. BaP extraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. It was also equipped with a manometer that included a valve for pressure release to maintain an internal pressure of 100 atm. The extraction cartridge containing a sample and water was placed into an oven connected to a temperature regulator under temperature 250oC and pressure 60 atm. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile extract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike.

The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of prevailing winds. Value from 2012 to 2013 reached to 316.5 mkg/kg in 5 cm soil layer and 217.8 mkg/kg in 5-20 cm soil layer that exceeded the BaP maximum concentration limit level in the soil up to 15 times. The maximum limited concentration of BaP in soil is 20 mkg/kg according Russian Federation legislation. Thus, a method of BaP determination in soils has been approved as based upon the subcritical water extraction under the optimum conditions. The efficiency of the given method involves the use of subcritical water as an environmentally friendly solvent, a shorter time for environmental analysis. BaP distribution and accumulation tendencies were investigated during the 2 years of monitoring researches in studied soils. The main factor of technogenic influence on the soil the investigated area are toxic emissions of a power complex plant from burning coal. Despite the environmental activities of in the enterprise, the impact of emissions on the environment location nearby today is still primary.

Effects of hazelnut husk compost application on soil quality parameters in hazelnut orchards in Turkey

Kızılkaya, R., 2016.
European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2016. April 17-22, 2016, Vienna, Austria. Geophysical Research Abstracts Vol.18, EGU2016-1797.

Abstract

The long-term application of excessive chemical fertilizers has resulted in the degeneration of soil quality parameters such as soil microbial biomass, respiration, and nutrient content, which in turn affects crop health, productivity, and soil sustainable productivity. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient solution for rehabilitating degraded two hazelnut orchards having different textures by precisely quantifying soil quality parameters through the application of different doses (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ton da-1) of hazelnut husk compost (HH) during hazelnut growth. After nine months of HHC application, soil quality parameters such as microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), basal respiration (BSR), total organic carbon (Corg), total N, C/N ratio, aggregate stability and some soil chemical properties (pH, EC and NO3-N content) were carried out on collected soil samples. The results showed that soil quality parameters were significantly affected by soil texture and HHC application doses. In general, Cmic, BSR, C/N ratio and the contents of Corg and N increased (P<0,001) and Cmic/Corg values decreased (P<0,001) with increasing HHC application in comparison with the control. In addition, HHC markedly increased the contents of NO3-N, the aggregate stability of soil, and the hydrolic conductivity in the soil were notably heightened. According to the results of field experiments conducted different location and condition, when the focusing on the organic substance management and sustainability of the quality parameters in soil, it was clear from the evidence obtained the research that the ideal HHC application was 5 ton per decare to increase the organic matter content by 2%.

Effectiveness of organiz wastes as fertilizer on urease activity of maize rhizosphere

Kızılkaya, R., Sushkova, S., 2016.
International Scientific Conference on Applied Sciences. September 27-30, 2016, Antalya, Turkey. Book of Abstracts (ISBN 978-605-65700-1-8) p.34.

Abstract

Soil enzymes are involved in the catalysis of large number reactions necessary for life processes of microorganisms in soils, decomposition of organic residues, cycling of nutrients and formation of organic matter and soil structure. Information on soil enzyme activities used to determine soil microbiological characteristics is very important for soil quality and health. Enzymatic activities caused by soil microbial activities are sensitive indicators for detecting the changes occurring in soils. Urease is the commonly used group name for enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of urea in aerobic conditions by acting on C–N bonds (nonpeptide) in linear amides. Urease activity (UAc) in soil is attributed to extracellular enzymes and the enzymes within proliferating microorganisms. Moreover, urease activity in soil is affected by the physicochemical properties and agricultural practices of the soil. Therefore, changes in soil urease activities may be indicative of and extremely sensitive to changes in soil health.  UAc in the rhizosphere can be of intracellular origin, released after microbial cell disuption or root cell sloughing, and may be associated with soil colloids and cell debris, or enzymes may be actively secreted by plant roots or root associated microorganisms. This study was carried out in order to determine the effects of different various organic wastes (tobacco production waste, wheat straw, tea waste and hazelnut husk) under greenhouse conditions on urease activity in clay loam soil and rhizosphere (Zea mays indandata) soil of maize plant. The organic wastes were thoroughly mixed with the soil at a rate equivalent to 50 g kg-1 on air-dried weight basis. Experimental design was randomized plot with the replications in greenhouse. The moisture content in soil was maintained around 60 % of maximum water holding capacity by weighing the pots every day. Changes in the UAc were determined in the soil and rhizosphere (Zea mays indendata) samples and root free soil taken in 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after the experiment was conducted. At the end of experiment, all organic waste added soil increased UAc in comparison with the control (P<0,01) at all experimental periods. Moreover, UAc in rhizosphere soil were higher than in root free soil at all organic waste application (P<0,01). Increased of organic wastes on UAc had different trend  (P<0,01) The most increases are in the UAc in the soil treated with  wastes of tea and  waste of tobacco production with supplying of low initial C/N  ratio compared to the other organic wastes.

Express-method of benzo[a]pyrene extraction from antropogenic landscape soil

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., Bauer, T., Nevidomskaya, D., Kızılkaya, R., 2016.
International Scientific Conference on Applied Sciences. September 27-30, 2016, Antalya, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-605-65700-2-5) Vol.1, p.68-72.

Abstract

The purpose of research is the assessment of main marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) content in soils of emission zone of the power complex plant in soils with newly developed express-methos of subcritical water extraction. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Plant emissions from burning coal. Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of BaP were taken from a depth of 0-20 cm. BaP etraction from soils was carried out by a subcritical water extraction method. Subcritical water extraction of BaP from soil samples was conducted in a specially developed extraction cartridge made of stainless steel and equipped with screw-on caps at both ends. The BaP concentration in the acetonitrile axtract was determined by HPLC. The efficiency of BaP extraction from soil was determined using a matrix spike. The main accumulation of pollutant in 20 cm layer of soils is noted directly in affected zone on the plots situated at 1.2, 1.6, 5.0, 8.0 km from emission source in the direction of prevailing winds. The maximum quantity of a pollutant was founded in the soil of the plot located mostly close to a source of pollution in the direction of precailing winds. Value from 2008 to 2011 reached to 275.6 mkg/kg in 5 cm layer and 117.8 mkg/kg in 5-20 cm soil layer that exceed the BaP maximum concentration limit level in the soil up to 15 times. Thus, a method of BaP determination in soils has been approved as based uopn the subcritical water extraction under the optimum conditions. The efficiency of the given method involves the use of subcritical water as an environmentally friendly solvent, a shorter time for environmental analysis. BaP düstribution and accumulation tendencies were investigated during the 2 years of monitoring researches in studied soils. The main factor of technogenic influence on the soil the incvestigated area are toxic emissions of a power complex plant durning coal. Despite the environmental activities of in the enterprise, the impact of emissions on the environment location nearby today is still primary.

Effects of different organic wastes on microbial properties of Maize (Zea Mays Indendata) rhizosphere and root free soil

Kızılkaya, R., Gülser, C., 2016.
VII International Scientific Agriculture Symposium. October 6-9, 2016, Jahorina, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Book of Abstracts (ISBN 978-99976-632-6-9) p.854.

Abstract

This study was carried out in order to determine the effects of various organic wastes (tobacco production waste, wheat straw, tea waste and hazelnut husk) under greenhouse conditions on microbial biomass C (Cmic) and basal respiration (BSR) in clay loam soil and rhizosphere (Zea mays indandata) soil of maize plant. The organic wastes were thoroughly mixed with the soil at a rate equivalent to 50 g kg-1 on air-dried weight basis. Experimental design was randomized plot with the replications in greenhouse. The moisture content in soil was maintained around 60 % of maximum water holding capacity by weighing the pots every day. Changes in the Cmic and BSR were determined in the soil and rhizosphere (Zea mays indendata) samples and root free soil taken in 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days after the experiment was conducted. At the end of experiment, all organic waste added soil increased Cmic and BSR in comparison with the control (P<0,01) at all experimental periods. Moreover, Cmic and BSR in rhizosphere soil were higher than in root free soil at all organic waste application (P<0,01). Increased amount of organic wastes had different effects on Cmic and BSR trend  (P<0,01). The most increases are in the Cmic and BSR in the soil treated with  wastes of tea and  waste of tobacco production with supplying of low initial C/N  ratio compared to the other organic wastes.

Physical attiributes in soil quality for sustainable soil management

Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., 2016.
VII International Scientific Agriculture Symposium. October 6-9, 2016, Jahorina, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Book of Abstracts (ISBN 978-99976-632-6-9) p.883.

Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., 2016. Physical attiributes in soil quality for sustainable soil management. VII International Scientific Agriculture Symposium. October 6-9, 2016, Jahorina, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Book of Abstracts (ISBN 978-99976-632-6-9) p.883.

Changes in microbial activities during vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida

Hepşen Türkay, Ş., Kızılkaya, R., 2016.
EUROSOIL 2016. 16-21 October 2016, Istanbul Turkey. Book of Abstracts p.228.

Abstract

The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform anaerobically digested sewage sludge (SS) amended with hazelnut husk (HH) and cow manure (CM) in different proportions under laboratory condition (in darkness, 25°C) at 90 day. Two approaches investigated in the study were: (1) to find the best medium for growth and reproduction of E.foetida in different feed mixtures, (2) to evaluate the effects of anaerobically digested sewage sludge on microbial activities such as basal respiration (BSR) and microbial biomass C (Cmic) during vermicomposting period. Number and biomass of earthworms, BSR and Cmic in feed mixtures and earthworms were periodically monitored. The results indicated that maximum earthworm biomass was attained in feed mixture of 20%SS + 40%CM + 40%HH while the earthworm number was highest in feed mixture of 30%SS + 35%CM + 35%HH during the vermicomposting period. During the vermicomposting period, it was determined significant (P<0.001) differences in microbiological properties in feed mixtures. Significant increase was determined in levels of BSR and Cmic at the 30th day of incubation whereas significant decrease was determined at the rest of the incubation period. Significant (P<0.001) differences were determined among all of the incubation periods of feed mixtures in terms of BSR and Cmic and the highest levels were determined in feed mixture of 30%SS+ 35%HM+35%CM. It’s suggested that the numbers and biomass production rates of earthworms were significantly affected by the proportion of SS of their feed mixtures. Results indicated that SS mixed with HH and CM could be utilized as an efficient soil conditioner for sustainable land restoration practices, at low-input basis, after processed by E.foetida. The study also inferred that the application of SS-based vermicompost in the agricultural fields as a soil conditioner, wouldn’t have any adverse effect.
 

Soil microbiological properties in a soil with addition of Philoscia muscorum

Akça, İ., Kızılkaya, R., Durmuş, M., 2016.
EUROSOIL 2016. 16-21 October 2016, Istanbul Turkey. Book of Abstracts p.401.

Abstract

Soil organisms are an integral part of ecological environment and contribute greatly to the disintegration of the plant and animal based wastes, especially in agricultural areas. Moreover, they have importants effects on plant nutrition and soil fertility because they are actively involved in the biological processes and sometimes they direct these processes. Isopods mainly inhabit the litter layer; by fragmenting leaf litter, they facilitate litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. As a consequence, terrestrial isopods indirectly affect the activity and community composition of the soil microflora. The isopod Philoscia muscorum (Isopoda; Philosciidae) is a common and abundant member of the saprophagous soil macrofauna in Turkey.  The objective of this study was to determine effect of Philoscia muscorum on microbiological properties in wheat straw as a carbon source for isopoda added clay loam soil. The microbiological properties and their activities due to addition of increasing number of Philoscia muscorum into the soil was measured over a short term (four-week) period under laboratory conditions. Incubated microcosms under standard conditions were inoculated with a natural assemblage of Philosciidae species. At the end of the experiment, the soil with a high number of Philoscia muscorum content showed higher microbiological properties such as microbial biomass C and microbial respiration than the soil with a low number of Philoscia muscorum content. Philoscia muscorum stimulated soil microbiological properties and altered the response of this biomass with addition of wheat straw into the soil microcosms.

Microbiological properties of solonetz and risky solonetz soils in Bafra Delta Plain, Turkey

Toprak T., Kızılkaya, R., 2016.
EUROSOIL 2016. 16-21 October 2016, Istanbul Turkey. Book of Abstracts p.402.

Abstract

The objective of this research was to assess the variation of soil microbiological properties and the relationships among the soil microbiological, physical and chemical properties along soil profiles formed on Bafra Delta Plain formed by Kızılırmak River, Turkey. For this purpose, soil classification was performed for six profiles by taking soil samples along horizons and the soil physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics such as microbial biomass, microbial respiration were determined. According to the soil classification system, soils on research area were classified as Sodic Haplustert, Typic Calciaquert, Sodic Calciustert, Vertic Haplustept, Typic Ustipsamment. The study represents that Na and ESP (exchangeable sodium percentage) contents increase in the lower soil layers for all soil profiles. Furthermore, it was determined that the microbiological properties of soil decreased with increasing soil depth and these decreases were significant statistically. As a result, the microbiological properties had significant positive correlations with organic matter, total N, available P and K contents in soil and significant negative correlations with exchangeable Na and ESP contents in soil.

Analysis of benzo[a]pyrene contamination from an long term contaminated soil

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Batukaev, A., Turina, I., Mandzhieva, S., Vasilyeva, G., Kızılkaya, R., Zamulina, I., Akca, I., 2016.
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 12(1), 1-11.

Abstract

Analysis of benzo[a]pyrene contamination from an aged contaminated chernozemic, meadow-chernozemic and alluvial soils under the effect of aerotechnogenic emissions from the Novocherkassk regional power plant have been revealed on the basis of annual monitoring studies from 2008 to 2012. A new ecologically clean highly-effective express-method of subcritical water extraction has been developed for determination of benzo[a]pyrene from soils of the emissions zone. It has been found that the 5-km zone to the northwest and west from the power station, which coincides with the predominant wind directions, is most subjected to contamination by benzo[a]pyrene, with the maximum accumulation at a distance of about 1.6 km from the emissions source. The vertical distribution coefficients of benzo[a]pyrene between the 0-5 cm and 5-20 cm layers closely correlate with the contents of physical clay, clay, organic matter and cation exchange capacity. It has been shown that the content of benzo[a]pyrene in the soil is an indicator of the technogenic pressure impact on the areas, for which the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuel are the major pollutants.

Benzo[a]pyrene contamination in Rostov Region of Russian Federation: A 10-year retrospective of soil monitoring under the effect of long-term technogenic pollution

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Turina, I., Mandzhieva, S., Batuer, T., Zamulina, I., Kızılkaya, R., 2016.
Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 5(2), 155-165.

Abstract

The aim of the current work was to study the main tendencies in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in soils of the affected zone of the Novocherkassk regional power plant. Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. Monitoring plots were established at different distances from the Novocherkassk regional power plant (1.0–20.0 km). Regularities in the accumulation and distribution of benzo[a]pyrene in chernozemic, meadow-chernozemic, and alluvial soils under the effect of aerotechnogenic emissions from the Novocherkassk regional power plant have been revealed on the basis of long-term monitoring studies (from 2002 to 2011). The tendencies in the distribution and accumulation of BaP in the studied soils coincided during the 10 years of monitoring studies. It has been found the 5-km zone to the northwest from the power station, which coincides with the predominant wind direction, is most subjected to contamination by benzo[a]pyrene, with the maximum accumulation at a distance of about 1.6 km from the source. Dynamics of pollutant accumulation in soils depends on number of Novocherkassk regional power plant emissions. The content of benzo[a]pyrene in the soil is an indicator of the technogenic load impact on the areas, for which the combustion products of hydrocarbon fuel are the major pollutants. A gradual decrease of the pollutant content in the soils was revealed during the period from 2002 to 2011. It explained by the significant decrease in the volume of pollutant emissions from the plant and the self-purification capacity of soils and mechanisms of benzo[a]pyrene degradation.

New alternative method of benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils and its approbiation in soil under technogenic pressure

Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Vasilyeva, G.K., Borisenko, N.I., Turina, I.G., Bolotova, O.V., Varduni, T.V., Kızılkaya, R., 2016.
Journal of Soil and Sediments. 16(4), 1323-1328.

Abstract

The optimization of benzo[a]pyrene extraction conditions by subcritical water extraction method from soils is the purpose of the research. The optimal conditions for benzo[a]pyrene recovery are 30-min extraction by water in a special steel cartridge at 250 A degrees C and 100 atm. 

Studies were conducted on the soils of monitoring plots subjected to Novocherkassk Power Station emissions. Monitoring plots were established at different distances from the Novocherkassk Power Station (NPS; 1.0-20.0 km). 

It was shown that the use of water in subcritical state as a solvent for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soil allows to avoid large volumes of organic solvents and to decrease the time of sample preparation. It is shown that the maximum benzo[a]pyrene maintenance was observed in soils of the monitoring plots located most close (to 5 km) to a pollution source in the area of the prevailing direction of a wind rose. Dynamics of pollutant accumulation in soils depend on number of Novocherkassk state district power station emissions. 

The method of benzo[a]pyrene subcritical water extraction from soil was developed and approbated during long-term monitoring researches of technogenic polluted territories. The optimum conditions for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soil have been determined: the soil is treating by subcritical water at 250 A degrees C and 100 atm of pressure for 30 min. Trends in the accumulation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil zones of the thermal power plant influence have been researched over a 5-year period of monitoring observations by subcritical water extraction method. Benzo[a]pyrene accumulation in soils depends on the technogenic emissions to the atmosphere from Novocherkassk power station and on the soil physical and chemical properties.

Isolation, characterization and genetic identification of natural fungal strains from decomposing hazelnut husk

Kızılkaya, R., Şahin, N., Aşkın, T., Sushkova, S., 2015.
50th Croatian & 10th International Symposium on Agriculture. February 16-20, 2015. Opatija, Croatia. Abstract Book (ISBN 978-953-7878-31-3) p.15

Abstract

The goal of this study was to determine the fungi enabling the degradation of hazelnut husk and awkward some chemical properties of decomposing hazelnut husk which is an agricultural organic waste. For that purpose, an amount of hazelnut husk picked from hazelnut gardens was stacked on a land and left under aerobic conditions for fragmentation. The fungal strains which use hazelnut husk were detected by molecular techniques in samples which were taken periodically for 2 years.

Efficient Cellulase-producing fungi were isolated from different sampling time in hazelnut husk composting process decayed lignocellulosic waste etc using different isolation strategies. Among the various isolates obtained from different environment, five different fungi were selected depending upon the diameter of clear zone produced in Carboxy methyl cellulose agar for further screening in liquid media and one potent strain NASC3 was identified as efficient cellulolytic fungi. Molecular identification of strain NASC3 was done by PCR amplification of 18s rDNA region using primers ITS4 and ITS5. The amplified products were sequenced and analyzed using ClustalW. The phylogenetic analysis of strain NASC3 showed and identified as Penicillium piceum IMI 392509T , Penicillium citrinum C1-1T , Emericella rugulosa 14T, Penicillium brasilianum KUC1433T , Acremonium sp. ATT196T,  Penicillium verruculosum 101119T, Penicillium piceum IMI 392509T and Aspergillus tubingensis SAB-B3C-TT.

Microbial biomass in a clay loam soil with addition of Philoscia muscorum (Isopoda; Philosciidae) and wheat straw

Akça, I., Kızılkaya, R., Durmuş, M., Kart, A., Durmuş, Ö.T.K., Konak, S., 2015.
International Soil Science Congress on “Soil Science in International Year of Soils 2015”. 19-23 October 2015. Sochi, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4465-0807-5). pp. 14-16.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine effect of Philoscia muscorum (Isopoda; Philosciidae) on microbial biomass in wheat straw added clay loam soil. The microbial biomasss due to addition of increasing number of Philoscia muscorum into the soil was measured over a short term (four-week) period under laboratory conditions. Incubated microcosms under standard conditions were inoculated with a natural assemblage of Philosciidae species. At the end of the experiment, the soil with a high number of Philoscia muscorum content showed higher microbial biomass than the soil with a low number of Philoscia muscorum content. Philoscia muscorum stimulated soil microbial biomass and altered the response of this biomass with addition of wheat straw into the soil microcosms.

The soil aggregate stability influenced by hazelnut husk compost application: main effects of soil texture and sampling period

Askin, T., Aygun, S., Kızılkaya, R., Tarakcioglu C., 2015.
International Soil Science Congress on “Soil Science in International Year of Soils 2015”. 19-23 October 2015. Sochi, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4465-0807-5). pp. 29-32.

Abstract

Our aim was to assess changes in aggregate stability (WAS) of soils by different doses (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ton da-1) of hazelnut husk compost (HHC) application in different sampling time (spring, summer, fall and winter) and in two hazelnut orchard  with different textures such as sandy loam (SL) and clay loam (CL). In the end of the each sampling period, soil aggregate stabilities were determined according to wet sieving method. Aggregate stability was not affected by HHC application while it was effected by soil texture and sampling time statistically. Our results showed that there were significant differences in different soil texture and sampling time. The best HHC application choice was 5 ton da-1 to increase the organic matter content by 2% level.

Determination of microbial biomass C and organic c contents in different sizes of natural soil aggregates

Erkoçak, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2015.
International Soil Science Congress on “Soil Science in International Year of Soils 2015”. 19-23 October 2015. Sochi, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4465-0807-5). pp. 118-121.

Erkoçak, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2015. Determination of microbial biomass C and organic c contents in different sizes of natural soil aggregates. International Soil Science Congress on “Soil Science in International Year of Soils 2015”. 19-23 October 2015. Sochi, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4465-0807-5). pp. 118-121.

The soil microbial activities influenced by hazelnut husk compost application

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Tarakçıoğlu, C., Durmuş, Ö.T.K., Durmuş, M., 2015.
International Soil Science Congress on “Soil Science in International Year of Soils 2015”. 19-23 October 2015. Sochi, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4465-0807-5). pp. 212-216.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine the changes in microbial activities of soil by different doses (0, 1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10 ton da-1) of hazelnut husk compost (HHC) applications in two hazelnut orchards having different textures. After nine months of HHC application, analyses of total organic carbon (Corg), total N, C/N ratio and soil microbial activities such as soil microbial biomass carbon (Cmic), basal respiration (BSR) and Cmic/Corg were carried out on collected soil samples. In general, Cmic, BSR, Cmic/Corg, C/N ratio and the contents of Corg and N increased (P<0,001) and Cmic/Corg values decreased (P<0,001) with increasing HHC application in comparison with the control. According to the results of field experiments conducted different location and condition, when the focusing on the organic substance management and sustainability of the biological process in soil, it was clear from the evidence obtained the research that the ideal HHC application was 0.5 ton per hectare to increase the organic substance content by 2%

Spatial variation microelements in soils Perm krai.

Mudrykh, N., Samofalova, I., Hamurcu, M., Hakki, E., Kızılkaya, R., Askın, T., Olekhov, V., Mikailsoy, F., 2015.
International Soil Science Congress on “Soil Science in International Year of Soils 2015”. 19-23 October 2015. Sochi, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4465-0807-5). pp. 291-294.

Mudrykh, N., Samofalova, I., Hamurcu, M., Hakki, E., Kızılkaya, R., Askın, T., Olekhov, V., Mikailsoy, F., 2015. Spatial variation microelements in soils Perm krai. International Soil Science Congress on “Soil Science in International Year of Soils 2015”. 19-23 October 2015. Sochi, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4465-0807-5). pp. 291-294.

Effects of gyttja on some soil quality parameters

Saltali, K., Dereli, N., Kızılkaya, R., 2015.
International Soil Science Congress on “Soil Science in International Year of Soils 2015”. 19-23 October 2015. Sochi, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4465-0807-5). pp. 363-367.

Saltali, K., Dereli, N., Kızılkaya, R., 2015. Effects of gyttja on some soil quality parameters. International Soil Science Congress on “Soil Science in International Year of Soils 2015”. 19-23 October 2015. Sochi, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4465-0807-5). pp. 363-367.

Benzo[a]pyrene content in soil-plant system of technogenic territories: analysis and estimation

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Turina, I., Kızılkaya, R., Gimp, A., Monzholo, V., Salamova, A., Akca, I., 2015.
International Soil Science Congress on “Soil Science in International Year of Soils 2015”. 19-23 October 2015. Sochi, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4465-0807-5) pp. 398-401.

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Turina, I., Kızılkaya, R., Gimp, A., Monzholo, V., Salamova, A., Akca, I., 2015. Benzo[a]pyrene content in soil-plant system of technogenic territories: analysis and estimation. International Soil Science Congress on “Soil Science in International Year of Soils 2015”. 19-23 October 2015. Sochi, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4465-0807-5) pp. 398-401.

Approbation of express-method for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils in the technogenic emission zone territories

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., Borisenko, N., Vasilyeva, G., Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., 2015
Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 4(1), 15-21.

Abstract

The benzo[a]pyrene accumulation and migration regularities in chernozemic soils under the aerotechnogenic emission zone were revealed on the basis of long-term monitoring researches. A new method of subcritical water extraction has been developed for determination of benzo[a]pyrene from soils of the emissions zone of Novocherkassk Power Station one of the largest thermal power enterprises in Russian Federation. It is shown that the soils adjacent to a source of emission are polluted by benzo[a]pyrene at distance to 5 km. Trends in the accumulation of benzo[a]pyrene in soil zones of the thermal power plant influence have been researched over a 5-year period of monitoring observations. The assessment of soils pollution extent by benzo[a]pyrene is given.

The financial feasibility of hazelnut husk and sewage sludge based vermicompost production

Ceyhan, V., Akça, I., Kızılkaya, R., Veselova, A., Nokikova, K., 2015.
Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 4(4), 259-265.

Abstract

Recycling the waste such as hazelnut husk, sewage sludge etc. has been one of the issues into the agenda of many countries. Therefore the purpose of the study was to examine the economic feasibility of the vermicompost production. Technical data about composting hazelnut husk and sewage sludge were gathered from past research. The time series data such as production, export, import and price of vermicompost collected from TURKSTAT, FAO and related institutions. Autoregressive integrating moving average model (ARIMA) and smoothing methods such as double exponential model and winter model were used in forecasting process. We followed net present value and internal rate of return procedures when evaluating the financial feasibility of the facility having one ton vermicompost production capacity per day. Research results showed that the profitability of vermicompost production facility was high, while the likelihood of loss was less. Vermicompost production facility with approximately 130 thousands of US dollars initial investment provided net present value of 1.28 million of US dollars during the economic life. The internal rate of vermicompost production facility was 23%. Research results also revealed that production cost of vermicompost was $0.2 per kilogram. Since vermicompost production facility investment with high profitability and low level of risk was good investment alternatives facing with low level of competitive in market, the study suggest to investors who has good back grounding about sector that they should pay attention to marketing system and market observation about organic input market.

Changes in soil quality by compost and hazelnut husk applications in a Hazelnut Orchard

Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Ekberli, İ., 2015.
Compost Science & Utilization 23(3), 135-141.

Abstract

In this study, changes in some soil quality indexes in a hazelnut orchard located in the Black Sea Region of Turkey were investigated after 6 months of compost (CMP) and hazelnut husk (HH) applications. CMP and HH applications increased soil organic carbon (OC) content from 1.40% to 2.57 and 3.51%, and electrical conductivity from 0.06 dS m−1 to 0.20 and 0.91 dS m−1, respectively (P < 0.01). In comparison to control treatment, CMP and HH applications increased the sum of exchangeable cations by 31 and 37%, aggregate stability by 2 and 7%, initial infiltration rate by 34 and 436%, and reduced bulk density by 20 and 33%, penetration resistance by 33 and 67%, respectively (P < 0.01). Physical and chemical soil quality parameters were improved using both HH and CMP in the hazelnut orchard. Although both organic matter sources were effective on quality of clay soil, slow mineralization rate of HH in soil due to including the highest C:N ratio (55%) caused greater effects of HH on soil quality indexes than that of CMP (having 22% C:N ratio) after 6 months of application.

Isolation and identification of bacterial strains from decomposing hazelnut husk

Kızılkaya, R., Sahin, N., Tatar, D., Veyisoglu, A., Askın, T., Sushkova, S.N., Minkina, T.M., 2015.
Compost Science & Utilization 23(3), 173-184.

Abstract

Composting is the microbial decomposition of materials that are biologically degradable. The structure of the initial organic materials differs from that of the decomposed materials in terms of C/N ratio and other related chemical properties. During the decomposition process, various microorganisms degrade intermediate organic products. The objectives of this study were to determine the bacteria enabling the degradation of hazelnut husks and some chemical properties of decomposing hazelnut husks, which are an agricultural waste. For that purpose, 1 m3 of hazelnut husks collected from hazelnut orchards were heaped on bare soil and left to decompose aerobically. The bacterial strains that utilize hazelnut husks were sampled periodically for 2 years. Thirty bacterial isolates were cultured; the majority of the bacterial isolates were affiliated with Actinobacteria, especially Streptomyces spp. with seventeen strains. The total N, pH, and electrical conductivity of the hazelnut husk heap increased significantly over the 2-year period, with the highest values obtained at the end of the study period. The initial C/N ratio was 55.7 and after the 24 months, the final ratio was 22.6.

Efficiency of neem azal T/S formulation on Philosa muscorum (Scopoli, 1763) (Isopoda; Philosciidae)

Akça, I., Kızılkaya, R., Minkina, T., Sushkova, S., Gromakova, N., 2015.
Egyptian Journal of Pest Control 25(1), 67-69.

Abstract

A study to determine the side effect of Neem Azal T/S (%1 Azadirachtin) formulation on the terrestrial isopod Philoscia muscorum (Scopoli, 1763) (Isopoda; Philosciidae) was conducted under laboratory conditions. Neem Azal is recommended as a biopesticide. Different doses of Neem Azal formulation (50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mL/100 L water) were tested. Obtained results showed that none of these doses had toxic effect on P. muscorum. Therefore, it is recommended to be used in integrated pest management programs, especially in organic agriculture.

Assessing the impact of azadirachtin application to soil on urease activity and its kinetic parameters

Kızılkaya, R., Samofalova, I., Mudrykh N., Mikayilsoy, F., Akça, I., Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., 2015.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 39(6), 976-983.

Abstract

The kinetic parameters of soil urease have attracted considerable attention; however, little information is available on its kinetic parameters and behaviors in response to azadirachtin application to the soil. A short (14-day) field experiment was conducted using Albic Luvisol soil (loam texture; pH 6.70; electrical conductivity 0.81 dS m(-1); CaCO3 content 0.04%; total organic carbon 0.99%) as the experimental soil in the Perm region of the Russian Federation to investigate the effects of different azadirachtin application doses on soil urease activity and its kinetic behaviors. The results showed that the highest urease activity was found under high azadirachtin application doses (0.6 L ha(-1)) compared to the control (0 L ha(-1)), recommended (0.3 L ha(-1)), and low (0.15 L ha(-1)) azadirachtin application doses at all different incubation times (1, 2, 3, 6, and 12 h). Soil urease enzymes exhibited typical Michaelis-Menten kinetic behaviors; high azadirachtin application doses increased the substrate affinity constant (K-M) and decreased the maximum reaction rates (V-max) of soil urease. As compared to the control azadirachtin application dose, the low azadirachtin application dose increased the V-max of soil urease; however, with low and recommended application doses, the V-max of soil urease decreased. Overall, in this study, all azadirachtin application doses were effective in influencing the kinetic behavior of urease in Albic Luvisol.

Solubility of benzo[a]pyrene and organic matter of soil in subcritical water

Sushkova, S., Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., Tjurina, I., Bolotova, O., Vasilyeva, G., Orlović-Leko, P., Varduni, T., Kızılkaya, R., Akça, İ., 2015.
Croatia Chemica Acta 88(3), 247-253.

Abstract

A dynamic subcritical water extraction method of benzo[a]pyrene from soils is under consideration. The optimum conditions for benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soil are described including the soil treatment by subcritical water at 250 degrees C and 100 atm for 30 min. The effectiveness of developed method was determined using the matrix spiking recovery technique. A comparative analysis was made to evaluate the results of benzo[a]pyrene extraction from soils using the subcritical water and organic solvents. The advantages of the subcritical water extraction involve the use of ecologically friendly solvent, a shorter time for the analysis and a higher amount of benzo[a]pyrene extracted from soil (96 %). The influence of subcritical water extraction on soil properties was measured the investigation of the processes occurring within soil under the influence the high temperature and pressure. Under appropriate conditions of the experiment there is the destruction of the soil organic matter while the composition of the soil mineral fraction remains practically unchanged.

Toprak organik karbonu: Jeoistatistiksel bir yaklaşım

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., Olekhov, V., Mudrykh, N., Samafalova, I., Türkmen, F., 2014.
Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Dergisi 2(1), 13-18.

Özet
Bu çalışmada; Rusya’da Batı Urallar olarak adlandırılan Perm Bölgesi’nde Perm Devlet Tarım Akademisi arazilerinden toprak işlemeli tarım yapılan bir arazide toprak organik karbonunun (SOC) uzaysal değişkenliğini değerlendirmek üzere jeoistatistiksel teknikler uygulanmıştır. Yaklaşık 2,35 ha büyüklüğündeki bu arazi 25x25 m aralıklarla karelere bölünmüş ve 0,20 m derinlikten 51 adet toprak örneği toplanmıştır. Çalışma alanının topraklarında, toprak reaksiyonu (pH) en az değişkenlik gösteren özellik iken; değişebilir potasyum (Ex-K) en fazla değişkenlik gösteren toprak özelliği olmuştur. Yine bu alanda toprak organik karbonunun uzaysal değişimini modellemek üzere etki mesafesi 151,04 m olan Gaussian model seçilmiştir.

Abstract
In present study, geostatistical techniques was applied to assess the spatial variability of soil organic carbon content (SOC) in the tillaged layer in a Perm State Agricultural Academy Farm site in Perm region, West Urals, Russia. A 250x100 m plot (approximately 2.35 ha) was divided into grids with 25x25 m spacing that included 51 sampling points from 0-0.2 m in depth. Soil reaction (pH) was the least variable property while the Ex-K was the most variable. The range of influence occurred for SOC was 151.04 m.

 

Microbial biomass C and organic C content of natural soil aggregates

Erkocak, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2014.
9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.14.

Erkocak, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2014. Microbial biomass C and organic C content of natural soil aggregates. 9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.14.

Changes in microbial biomass, soil respiration and enzyme activities in Zn contaminated soil under field condition

Bayraklı, B., Kızılkaya, R., 2014.
9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.19.

Bayraklı, B., Kızılkaya, R., 2014. Changes in microbial biomass, soil respiration and enzyme activities in Zn contaminated soil under field condition. 9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1),  p.19.

Influence of spinosad on soil microbiological characteristics in Albic Luvisol

Kızılkaya, R., Akça, İ., Aşkın, T., Samofalova, I., Olekhov, V., Mudrykh, N., 2014.
9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.34.

Kızılkaya, R., Akça, İ., Aşkın, T., Samofalova, I., Olekhov, V., Mudrykh, N., 2014. Influence of spinosad on soil microbiological characteristics in Albic Luvisol. 9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.34.

An investigation on the possibilities of using Kombucha (Kombu Tea) and mix microorganisms culture which are Kombucha production waste in agriculture as microbial fertilizer

Durmuş, M., Kızılkaya, R., 2014.
9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.49

Durmuş, M., Kızılkaya, R., 2014. An investigation on the possibilities of using Kombucha (Kombu Tea) and mix microorganisms culture which are Kombucha production waste in agriculture as microbial fertilizer. 9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1),  p.49.

Changes of microbiological properties and yield response of wheat in Actinomadura geliboluensis inoculated soils

Kussainova, M., Kızılkaya, R., 2014.
9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.44.

Kussainova, M., Kızılkaya, R., 2014. Changes of microbiological properties and yield response of wheat in Actinomadura geliboluensis inoculated soils. 9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.44.

Estimating soil moisture status in peach tree orchards by using crop water stress index

Paltineanu, C., Septar, L., Moale, C., Lamureanu, G., Demirsoy, H., Köksal, E.S., Kızılkaya, R., Macit, İ., 2014.
9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.95.

Paltineanu, C., Septar, L., Moale, C., Lamureanu, G., Demirsoy, H., Köksal, E.S., Kızılkaya, R., Macit, İ., 2014. Estimating soil moisture status in peach tree orchards by using crop water stress index. 9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.95.

Canopy temperature for peach tree at various soil water contents

Septar, L., Paltineanu, C., Chitu, E., Moale, C., Demirsoy, H., Köksal, E.S., Kızılkaya, R., Macit, İ., 2014.
9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.121

Septar, L., Paltineanu, C., Chitu, E., Moale, C., Demirsoy, H., Köksal, E.S., Kızılkaya, R., Macit, İ., 2014.  Canopy temperature for peach tree at various soil water contents. 9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.121

Investigation of a novel soil analysis method in agricultural areas of Çarşamba plain for fertilizer recommendation

Eren, E., Öksüz, Y., Karadağ, S., Özen, S., Gemici, Z., Kızılkaya, R., 2014.
9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.172.

Eren, E., Öksüz, Y., Karadağ, S., Özen, S., Gemici, Z., Kızılkaya, R., 2014.  Investigation of a novel soil analysis method in agricultural areas of Çarşamba plain for fertilizer recommendation. 9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.172.

The financial feasibility of hazelnut husk and sewage sludge based vermicompost production

Ceyhan, V., Kızılkaya, R., Veselova, A., Novikova, K., 2014.
9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.293.

Ceyhan, V., Kızılkaya, R., Veselova, A., Novikova, K., 2014. The financial feasibility of hazelnut husk and sewage sludge based vermicompost production. 9th International Soil Science Congress on “The Soul of Soil and Civilization”. October 14-16, 2014. Side, Antalya, Turkey. Abstract Book (ISBN 979‐605‐63090‐2‐1), p.293

Canopy temperature for peach tree at various soil water contents

Septar, L., Paltineanu, C., Chitu, E., Moale, C., Demirsoy, H., Köksal, E.S., Kızılkaya, R., Macit, İ., 2014
Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 3(1), 56-64.

Abstract

Canopy temperature measurements with infrared thermometry have been extensively studied as a means of assessing plant water status for field and row crops. Achieving high quality peach fruit depends on the ability to maintain mild to moderate levels of water stress in the crop during the growing season. The paper examined the spatial distribution of tree canopy temperature (Tc) using thermal images in a peach orchard for irrigation scheduling. The variation of Tc was investigated in three irrigation regime treatments (factor A) that produced various soil moisture content (SMC) values, three cardinal points (factor B): South, North and East-West aspects combined, and five updown vertical position measurements (factor C: upper, middle upper, middle, middle lower and lower) across the tree canopy thermal images. It was found that Tc was significantly influenced by the irrigation regime. Cardinal point showed a significant Tc difference between South on the one hand and the other aspects. The vertical position within canopy image did not significantly influence Tc.

Heavy metal compounds in a soil of technogenic zone as indicate of its ecological state

Minkina, T., Mandzhieva, S., Motusova, G., Burachevskaya, M., Nazarenko, O., Sushkova, S., Kızılkaya, R., 2014.
Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 3(2), 144-151.

Abstract

The emissions from the Novocherkassk power station comprise 1% of the total volume in the Russian Federation and up to 58% of the emissions in the Rostov oblast. The aim of this work was to assess the regularities of heavy metals accumulation and transformation in soils subjected to aerosol emissions from the power station on the basis of the fractional composition of their compounds. Studies have been conducted on the soils of monitoring plots distances from the power station (1.0–20.0 km) during 15 years. The monitoring plots located on fallow areas. Soil samples for the determination of soil properties and the contents of heavy metals compounds were taken from a depth of 0–20 cm. The soil cover in the region under study consisted of ordinary chernozems, meadow-chernozemic soils, and alluvial meadow soils. The total amount of heavy metals in soils was determined by X-ray fluorescence. Metals in soil extracts were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The fractional composition of heavy metals was determined using combined fractionation. A combined approach for fractioning metal compounds in soils on the basis of and parallel extractions (1 N NH4Ac, pH 8; 1% EDTA in NH4Ac; and 1 N HCl) was used. Aerosol emissions from the power station are the major agents of technogenic impact on the soils under study in the Rostov oblast. The highest degree of contamination with metals (mg/kg: Ni - 64, Cd – 1.3, Cr - 145 and As – 12) was observed for soils located within a radius of 5 km from the power station along the predominant wind direction. It was marked the rise of metals mobility in the polluted soils and predominant participation of Cr and Ni organic-mineral complexes among their mobile species. The increasing of Cd mobility was provided predominantly by exchangeable forms and specifically sorbed by Fe-Mn (hydr)oxides. The environmental contamination hazard increases with the decreasing metal-buffering capacity of soils. 

Investigation of a novel soil analysis method in agricultural areas of Çarşamba plain for fertilizer recommendation

Eren, E., Öksüz, Y., Karadağ, S., Özen, S., Gemici, Z., Kızılkaya, R., 2014.
Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 3(2), 123-130.

Abstract

In this study, a novel soil analysis method for fertilization recommendation was developed and validated with 161 soil samples taken from Turkey - Çarşamba plain for determination of potassium as a plant nutrient. In conventional soil analysis methods, available potassium (K) nutrient was determined by ammonium acetate extraction with flame photometer. In this study an alternative to existing method was proposed by developing extraction solutions suitable for interference dynamics of ion selective electrodes in a flow injection setup. Flow injection analysis system was optimized and K ion concentration of 161 soil samples taken from Turkey –Çarşamba plain was determined with potentiometrically. For the same soil samples, K+ ion concentration was determined with ammonium acetate extraction using flame photometer in parallel. Fertilization recommendations for potassium was calibrated on ammonium acetate extraction based measurements. In order to evaluate available potassium nutrient analysis results from new generation soil analysis method in fertilization recommendation process, a correlation model is required for relating new generation method results to conventional method results. An artificial neural network based soft sensor system was developed for this task. Potentiometric K+ ion measurement of soil sample in flow injection analysis system was presented as input to soft sensor system. Soft sensor predicted available K in soil sample based on artificial neural network model which can be used in fertilizer recommendation. Prediction performance of soft sensor was validated with experimental data and fitted with high correlation coefficient (R2= 0.902). Experimental studies have shown that K determined by potentiometric measurements can be used in fertilization recommendations in Çarşamba plain by using soft sensor approach.

Evaluation of suppression of rhizomania disease by earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris L.) and its effects on soil microbial activity in different sugar beet cultivars

Akca, İ., Kutluk Yilmaz, N.D., Kızılkaya, R., 2014.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 60(11), 1565–1575.

Abstract

The ability of earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. to suppress the multiplication of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV) transmitted by Polymyxa betae and its effects on soil microbial activity were investigated under controlled conditions. BNYVV-infested and a combination of earthworm with BNYVV-infested soil were compared to non-infested soils for their effects on plant and root weights and virus content of two different sugar beet cultivars by using partially resistant (cv. Leila) and susceptible (cv. Arosa) cultivars to the rhizomania disease. Soil testing with sugar beet baiting plants followed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to diagnose virus. The results of the statistical analyses showed that total fresh plant and root weights were negatively correlated with BNYVV infection. Addition of L. terrestris significantly enhanced plant and root weights. The earthworm-added soils had higher microbial activity such as basal soil respiration and dehydrogenase activity. The presence of earthworms in the soil did not statistically suppress BNYVV infection (< 0.05). Sugar beet production may be enhanced by using resistant cultivars with adding L. terrestris into soil where rhizomania is present.

New method for benzo[a]pyrene analysis in plant material using subcritical water extraction

Sushkova, S.N., Vasilyeva, G.K., Minkina, T.M., Mandzhieva, S.S., Tjurina, I.G., Kolesnikov, S.I., Kızılkaya, R., Askin, T., 2014.
Journal of Geochemical Exploration 144, 267-272.

Abstract

A new method for benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) analyses in plant material was developed using subcritical water extraction followed by HPLC analyses of the extracts. BaP extraction efficiency was determined by spiking grass vegetation collected from a preserve in Rostov Oblast (Russia). BaP recovery was optimal with a 30-min extraction by water in a special steel cartridge at 250 °C and 100 atm. More than 98% of the BaP was recovered from the plant material using subcritical water extraction, compared to 72% recovery by saponification of the sample with conventional hexane extraction. Other advantages of subcritical water extraction are the use of water as an environmentally friendly solvent instead of large volumes of organic solvents as well as a shorter analysis time.

Vermicomposting of anaerobically digested sewage sludge with hazelnut husk and cow manure by earthworm Eisenia foetida

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen Türkay, F.Ş., 2014.
Compost Science & Utilization 22(2), 68-82.

Abstract

Vermicomposting of organic waste has an important part to play in an integrated waste management strategy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of an epigeic earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform anaerobically digested sewage sludge (SS) amended with hazelnut husk (HH) and cow manure (CM) in different proportions under laboratory conditions (in darkness at 25°C ± 0.5°C). Three approaches investigated in the study were: (1) to find the best medium for growth and reproduction of E. foetida in different feed mixtures, (2) to analyze the heavy metal concentrations in different feed mixtures of SS&sbnd;HH&sbnd;CM before and after vermicomposting, and (3) to explore heavy metals accumulation of earthworms in sewage sludge with different feed mixtures. Number and biomass of earthworms and heavy metal contents in feed mixtures and earthworms were periodically monitored. The results indicated that maximum earthworm biomass was attained in a feed mixture of 20% SS + 40% CM + 40% HH, while the earthworm number was highest in a feed mixture of 30% SS + 35% CM + 35% HH during the vermicomposting period. Heavy metals concentration (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cr) in all feed mixtures decreased associated with the increasing vermicomposting time. The heavy metals’ content in the feed mixtures was lower than that of initial mixtures. Metal analysis of earthworms revealed considerable bioaccumulation of heavy metals in their bodies’ tissue. Heavy metal analysis of earthworm body showed that increasing proportion of SS in the feed mixtures promoted the heavy metal content of earthworm body.

Effects of green manuring on soil enzyme activity

Sürüsü, A. Özyazıcı, M.A., Bayraklı, B., Kızılkaya, R., 2014.
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin 23(9), 2126-2132.

Abstract

In this research, the effects of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) used for green manure and forage production as a winter catch crop on some soil biological properties were investigated. The field experiments were conducted in carsamba Plain located in the north region of Turkey. The "green manuring-maize-wheat" crop rotation with a randomized complete block with four replications was repeated in two separate years. The treatments used to investigate the management effect on soil enzyme activity were: (GM1-GM4) burying the whole above ground faba bean plant as green manure, (GM5-GM8) burying the under ground-stubbles of plants and (C1-C2) control. Different nitrogen doses of 0, 60, 120, 180 kg N ha(-1) for maize, and 0, 50, 100 and 150 kg N ha(-1) for wheat were applied following the green manuring. The results revealed that both types of green manure applications provided an increase in urease and dehydrogenase contents of soils compared to the control. The urease (UA) and dehydrogenase (DH) activities were higher with above ground parts of faba been application when compared to application of the underground stubbles. The activity of the UA and DG were significantly (P<0.05) influenced at the end of the maize harvest in the GM amended soils. At the end of the maize harvest, significantly (P<0.05) highest VA activity (205.1 mu g N l(-1) dry soil) was observed in the GM1 treatment compared to the control soil. While, the lowest UA activity was recorded in the GM5 (178.4 mu g N l(-1) dry soil).

Changes in C/N ratio and some chemical properties during decomposition of hazelnut husk under field conditions

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Fotina, O., 2013.
48th Croatian & 8th International Symposium on Agriculture, February 17 - 22, 2013, Dubrovnik, Crotia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-953-7871-08-6), pp. 83-87.

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Fotina, O., 2013. Changes in C/N ratio and some chemical properties during decomposition of hazelnut husk under field conditions. 48th Croatian & 8th International Symposium on Agriculture, February 17 - 22, 2013, Dubrovnik, Crotia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-953-7871-08-6), pp. 83-87.

The effect of azadirachtin on microbial biomass and basal respiration in soil

Kızılkaya, R., Akca, İ., Aşkın, T., Samofalova, I., Mudrykh, N., Olekhov, V., 2013.
International Agricultural Conference on “The Development and Implementation of Modern Technologies and Farming Systems for Ensuring the Environmental Safety”, July 3-6, 2013, Perm, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4367-0075-5), Vol.1, pp. 259-266.

Kızılkaya, R., Akca, İ., Aşkın, T., Samofalova, I., Mudrykh, N., Olekhov, V., 2013. The effect of azadirachtin on microbial biomass and basal respiration in soil. International Agricultural Conference on “The Development and Implementation of Modern Technologies and Farming Systems for Ensuring the Environmental Safety”, July 3-6, 2013, Perm, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4367-0075-5), Vol.1, pp. 259-266.

DTPA-extractable micronutrients: A geostatistical study in Perm (Russia)

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., Samofalova, I., Mudrykh, N., Olekhov, V., Türkmen, F., 2013.
International Agricultural Conference on “The Development and Implementation of Modern Technologies and Farming Systems for Ensuring the Environmental Safety”, July 3-6, 2013, Perm, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4367-0076-2), Vol.1, pp. 211-223.

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., Samofalova, I., Mudrykh, N., Olekhov, V., Türkmen, F., 2013. DTPA-extractable micronutrients: A geostatistical study in Perm (Russia). International Agricultural Conference on “The Development and Implementation of Modern Technologies and Farming Systems for Ensuring the Environmental Safety”, July 3-6, 2013, Perm, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-4367-0076-2), Vol.1, pp. 211-223.

Effects of sewage sludge on microbial biomass and basal respiration of soil and earthworm Lumbricus terrestris cast

Kızılkaya, R., Gülser, C., 2013.
International Conference on “Current status of chernozems”, September 24-26, 2013, Rostov-on-Don, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-9275-1143-3), pp. 385-389.

Kızılkaya, R., Gülser, C., 2013. Effects of sewage sludge on microbial biomass and basal respiration of soil and earthworm Lumbricus terrestris cast. International Conference on “Current status of chernozems”, September 24-26, 2013, Rostov-on-Don, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-9275-1143-3), pp. 385-389.

Concept of soil quality

Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., 2013.
Congress on “Actual issues of Science and Agro-Industrial Complex in the European Integration Process”. November 13-15, 2013. Perm, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-94279-183-4), Vol. 1, pp.273-287.

Abstract

A thin layer of topsoil, takes hundreds of years to form, covers much of the earth as the interface between aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial ecosystems. Soil is a funda-mental natural resource for basic human needs. Soil can provide the physical support, nutrients, water, and gas exchange necessary for crop growth. Soil is also home to many macro or micro organismswhich directly or indirectly impact crop growth. Soil also supports natural ecosystems as it cycles water and chemical elements through the biosphere. Physical, chemical, and biologi-cal soil factors determine the need for various inputs, such as water, fertilizer, and pesticides. The health of our environment depends on soil, air, and water quality. Therefore, soil manage-ment will always be important.

Evaluating soil quality is not the same classifying soils based on their natural properties. Soil quality is not concerned with rating or comparing the suitability of different soil types for a specific use. Soil quality is an evaluation of the condition of a particular soil in relation to its potential capacity. Therefore, the focus of soil quality is on properties or processes impacted by soil use or management. The importance of soil quality and how it may be defined, evaluated, and managed will be discussed during this workshop.

Soil dehydrogenase activity of natural macro aggregates in a toposequence of forest soil

Kussainova, M., Durmuş, M., Erkoçak, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2013.
Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 2(1), 69-75.

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to determine changes in soil dehydrogenase activity in natural macro aggregates development along a slope in forest soils. This study was carried out in Kocadag, Samsun, Turkey. Four landscape positions i.e., summit, shoulder backslope and footslope, were selected. For each landseape position, soil macro aggregates were separated into six aggregate size classes using a dry sieving method and then dehydrogenase activity was analyzed. In this research, topography influenced the macroaggregate size and dehydrogenase activity within the aggregates. At all landscape positions, the contents of macro aggregates (especially > 6.3 mm and 2.00–4.75 mm) in all soil samples were higher than other macro aggregate contents. In footslope position, the soils had generally the higher dehydrogenase activity than the other positions at all landscape positions. In all positions, except for shoulder, dehydrogenase activity was greater macro aggregates of <1mm than in the other macro aggregate size.

Variables of microbial response in natural soil aggregates for soil characterization in different fluvial land shapes

Dengiz, O., Kızılkaya, R., Erkocak, A., Durmus, M., 2013.
Geomicrobiology Journal 30(2), 100-107.

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to determine changes in microbial response in natural soil aggregates for soil characterization in different fluvial land shapes. This study was carried out in fluvial lands formed on accumulated sediment depositions carried by Kızılırmak River. The majority soils of the study area were classified as Typic Ustifluvent and Typic Haplustept in Soil Taxonomy. It was found that macroaggregates (especially >6300 μm and 2000–4750 μm diameters) of all soil samples were higher than microaggregate of soils. In addition, it was determined that the Corg content varies between 0.41–0.91% in soil samples. Cmic content was also found higher level in aggregates involved <250 and 250–425 μm diameters as compared to other aggregate size classes. Moreover, we detected that Corg:Cmicratio was much higher in macroaggregates than in microaggregate fractions. BR levels were also greater in macroaggregates of >6,300, 4,750–6,300 and 2,000–4,750 μm than in the other macroaggregates sizes and microaggregates. Consequently, macroaggregates have relatively more Corg level than the Corg level in microaggregates, even if the absolute values of Cmic were the lower. This study thus evidenced contrasting microbial habitats and their response in different soil aggregate size formed in various developed soils.

Effect of soil contamination with azadirachtin on dehydrogenase and catalase activity of soil

Kızılkaya, R., Akca, İ., Aşkın, T., Olekhov, V., Samofalova, I., Mudrykh, N., 2012.
8th International Soil Science Congress on Land Degradation and Challenges in Sustainable Soil Management. May 15-17, 2012. Çeşme, İzmir, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-96629-8-1) Vol.2, pp. 39-44.

Kızılkaya, R., Akca, İ., Aşkın, T., Olekhov, V., Samofalova, I., Mudrykh, N., 2012. Effect of soil contamination with azadirachtin on dehydrogenase and catalase activity of soil. 8th International Soil Science Congress on Land Degradation and Challenges in Sustainable Soil Management. May 15-17, 2012. Çeşme, İzmir, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-96629-8-1) Vol.2, pp. 39-44.

Soil exchangeable cations: A geostatistical study from Russia

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., Olekhov, V., Mudrykh, N., Samofalova, I., 2012.
8th International Soil Science Congress on Land Degradation and Challenges in Sustainable Soil Management. May 15-17, 2012. Çeşme, İzmir, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-96629-8-1), Vol.2, pp. 53-59.

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., Olekhov, V., Mudrykh, N., Samofalova, I., 2012. Soil exchangeable cations: A geostatistical study from Russia. 8th International Soil Science Congress on Land Degradation and Challenges in Sustainable Soil Management. May 15-17, 2012. Çeşme, İzmir, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-96629-8-1), Vol.2, pp. 53-59.

Impact of azadirachtin on microbial response variables in soil

Kızılkaya, R., Akca, İ., Aşkın, T., Olekhov, V., Mudrykh, N., Samofalova, I., 2012.
The 4th International Congress of the European Confederation of Soil Science Societies (ECSSS). EUROSOIL-2012. July 2-6, 2012. Bari, Italy. Abstract Book, p. 2294.

Kızılkaya, R., Akca, İ., Aşkın, T., Olekhov, V., Mudrykh, N., Samofalova, I., 2012. Impact of azadirachtin on microbial response variables in soil. The 4th International Congress of the European Confederation of Soil Science Societies (ECSSS). EUROSOIL-2012. July 2-6, 2012. Bari, Italy. Abstract Book, p. 2294.

Some soil physical properties as related to landscape position: A Geostatistical Study

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., 2012.
The 4th International Congress of the European Confederation of Soil Science Societies (ECSSS). EUROSOIL-2012. July 2-6, 2012. Bari, Italy. Abstract Book, p.1294.

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., 2012. Some soil physical properties as related to landscape position: A Geostatistical Study. The 4th International Congress of the European Confederation of Soil Science Societies (ECSSS). EUROSOIL-2012. July 2-6, 2012. Bari, Italy. Abstract Book, p.1294.

The effect of whey application on some growth parameters of maize (Zea Mays L. Indentata s.) and the biological properties of soils

Akay, A., Sert, D., Kızılkaya, R., Durmus, M., 2012.
International Biology Congress. September 24-27, 2012. Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, Abstract Book. p.97.

Akay, A., Sert, D., Kızılkaya, R., Durmus, M., 2012. The effect of whey application on some growth parameters of maize (Zea Mays L. Indentata s.) and the biological properties of soils. International Biology Congress. September 24-27, 2012. Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, Abstract Book. p.97.

Soil organic carbon: A geostatical approach

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., Olekhov, V., Mudrykh, N., Samafalova, I., 2012.
Materials of International Scientific – Practical Conference “Rational use of Soil Resources and the Environment”. November 15-16, 2012. Almaty, Kazakhstan. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-601-80286-0-1), pp. 38-44.

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., Olekhov, V., Mudrykh, N., Samafalova, I., 2012. Soil organic carbon: A geostatical approach. Materials of International Scientific – Practical Conference “Rational use of Soil Resources and the Environment”. November 15-16, 2012. Almaty, Kazakhstan. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-601-80286-0-1), pp. 38-44.

Some physic-chemical properties and catalase enzyme activity level of soils formed on two different parent material

Saygın, F., Durmuş, M., Sarıoğlu, F.E., Dengiz, O., Kızılkaya, R., 2012.
Materials of International Scientific – Practical Conference “Rational use of Soil Resources and the Environment”. November 15-16, 2012. Almaty, Kazakhstan. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-601-80286-0-1), pp. 256-260.

Saygın, F., Durmuş, M., Sarıoğlu, F.E., Dengiz, O., Kızılkaya, R., 2012. Some physic-chemical properties and catalase enzyme activity level of soils formed on two different parent material. Materials of International Scientific – Practical Conference “Rational use of Soil Resources and the Environment”. November 15-16, 2012. Almaty, Kazakhstan. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-601-80286-0-1), pp. 256-260.

Soil exchangeable cations: A geostatistical study from Russia

Aşkın,T., Kızılkaya, R., Yılmaz, R., Olekhov, V., Mudrykh, N., Samofalova, I., 2012.
Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 1(1), 34-39

Abstract

In present study, geostatistical techniques was applied to assess the spatial variability of exchangeable cations such as; calcium (Ex-Ca2+), magnesium (Ex-Mg2+), potassium (Ex-K+) and sodium (Ex-Na+) in the tillaged layer in a Perm State Agricultural Academy Farm site in Perm region, West Urals, Russia. A 250x100 m plot (approximately 2.35 ha) was divided into grids with 25x25 m spacing that included 51 sampling points from 0-0.2 m in depth. Soil reaction (pH) was the least variable property while the Ex-K was the most variable. The greatest range of influence (237.6 m) occurred for Ex-Ca and the least range (49.7 m) for Ex-Mg.

Effects of soil contamination with azadirachtin on dehydrogenase and catalase activity of soil

Kızılkaya, R., Akca, İ., Aşkın, T., Yılmaz, R., Olekhov, V., Samofalova, I., Mudrykh, N., 2012.
Eurasian Journal of Soil Science 1(2), 98-103.

Abstract

Insecticides are used in modern agriculture in large quantities to control pests and increase crop yield. Their use, however, has resulted in the disruption of ecosystems because of the effects on non-target soil microorganisms, some environmental problems, and decreasing soil fertility. These negative effects of synthetic pesticides on the environment have led to the search for alternative means of pest control. One such alternative is use of natural plant products such as azadirachtin that have pesticidal activity. The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of soil contamination by azadirachtin (C35H44O16) on dehydrogenase (DHA) and catalase activity (CA) of soil under field conditions in Perm, Russia. The tests were conducted on loamy soil (pHH2O 6.7, ECH2O 0.213 dSm-1, organic carbon 0.99%), to which the following quantities of azadirachtin were added: 0, 15, 30 and 60 mL da-1 of soil. Experimental design was randomized plot design with three replications. The DHA and CA analyses were performed 7, 14 and 21 days after the field experiment was established. The results of field experiment showed that azadirachtin had a positive influence on the DHA and CA at different soil sampling times. The increased doses of azadirachtin applied resulted in the higher level of DHA and CA in soil. The soil DHA and CA showed the highest activity on the 21th day after 60 mL azadirachtin da-1 application doses.

Vermicompost effects on wheat yield and nutrient contents in soil and plant

Kızılkaya, R., Turkay, F.S.H., Turkmen, C., Durmus, M., 2012.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 58(S1), S175-S179.

Abstract

Vermicomposting of organic waste can play an important role in integrated waste management strategies. Ability of the earthworm Eisenia foetida to transform anaerobically digested sewage sludge (SS) amended with hazelnut husk (HH) and cow manure (CM) in different proportions (0% SS + 50% HH + 50% CM; 10% SS + 45% HH + 45% CM; 20% SS + 40% HH + 40% CM; 30% SS + 35% HH + 35% CM; 40 SS% + 30% HH + 30% CM; 50% SS + 25% HH + 25% CM) was studied in a greenhouse experiment in terms of the effects of vermicompost on wheat (Triticum aestium) yield and nutrient content in soil and plant. All vermicomposted and non- vermicomposted mixtures exhibited positive effect on the yield and nutrient concentrations of wheat compared to the control pots. The vermicomposted organic waste mixtures showed comparatively better effect on plant production than the non- vermicomposted organic waste mixtures. Vermicomposted 50% SS + 25% HH + 25% CM mixtures showed the highest positive effect on yield compared to the other treatments.

Alüviyal araziler üzerinde oluşan farklı toprakların katalaz enzim aktivitelerindeki değişimin belirlenmesi

Durmuş, M., Erkoçak, A., Kızılkaya, R., Dengiz O., 2011.
Prof.Dr.Nuri Munsuz Ulusal Toprak ve Su Sempozyumu. 25-27 Mayıs 2011, Ankara. Bildiriler Kitabı (ISBN 978-975-482-975-4) s.153-159.

Durmuş, M., Erkoçak, A., Kızılkaya, R., Dengiz O., 2011. Alüviyal araziler üzerinde oluşan farklı toprakların katalaz enzim aktivitelerindeki değişimin belirlenmesi. Prof.Dr.Nuri Munsuz Ulusal Toprak ve Su Sempozyumu. 25-27 Mayıs 2011, Ankara. Bildiriler Kitabı (ISBN 978-975-482-975-4) s.153-159.

Evaluation of different organic materials as a carrier for Azotobacter chroococcum

Kızılkaya, R., Khusainova, O., 2011.
International Conference on “Resource Potentialof Soils– The Basis of the Food and Ecological Safety of Russia. March 1-4, 2011. Saint Petersburg, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-288-05155-5), pp. 314-317.

Kızılkaya, R., Khusainova, O., 2011. Evaluation of different organic materials as a carrier for Azotobacter chroococcum. International Conference on “Resource Potentialof Soils– The Basis of the Food and Ecological Safety of Russia. March 1-4, 2011. Saint Petersburg, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-288-05155-5), pp. 314-317.

The spatial variability of arylsulphatase activity: A study from agricultural ecosystem

Aşkın, T., Sinitsa, Y.N. Kızılkaya, R., 2011.
International Conference on “Resource Potentialof Soils– The Basis of the Food and Ecological Safety of Russia. March 1-4, 2011. Saint Petersburg, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-288-05155-5), pp. 324-327.

Aşkın, T., Sinitsa, Y.N. Kızılkaya, R., 2011. The spatial variability of arylsulphatase activity: A study from agricultural ecosystem. International Conference on “Resource Potentialof Soils– The Basis of the Food and Ecological Safety of Russia. March 1-4, 2011. Saint Petersburg, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-288-05155-5), pp. 324-327.

Microbial biomass carbon and organic carbon content in soil aggregates from different soil types

Erkocak, A., Durmus, M., Kızılkaya, R., Dengiz, O., 2011.
Ecology of Soil Microorganisms- Microbes as Important Drivers of Soil Processes. April 27 - May 1, 2011. Prague, Czech Republic, Abstract Book, p. 252.

Erkocak, A., Durmus, M., Kızılkaya, R., Dengiz, O., 2011. Microbial biomass carbon and organic carbon content in soil aggregates from different soil types. Ecology of Soil Microorganisms- Microbes as Important Drivers of Soil Processes. April 27 - May 1, 2011. Prague, Czech Republic, Abstract Book, p. 252.

Earthworm interactions with soil enzymes

Kızılkaya R., Karaca, A., Turgay, O.C. Çetin, S.C., 2011.
Biology of Earthworms, Soil Biology, Vol 24, pp.141-158. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Kızılkaya R., Karaca, A., Turgay, O.C. Çetin, S.C., 2011. Earthworm interactions with soil enzymes. In: A.Karaca (ed.), Biology of Earthworms, Soil Biology, Vol 24, pp.141-158. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Soil enzymes as indication of soil quality

Karaca, A., Çetin, S.C., Turgay, O.C., Kızılkaya, R., 2011.
Soil Enzymology, Soil Biology, Vol 22, pp.119-148. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Karaca, A., Çetin, S.C., Turgay, O.C., Kızılkaya, R., 2011. Soil enzymes as indication of soil quality. In: S. Girish, A. Varma (eds.), Soil Enzymology, Soil Biology, Vol 22, pp.119-148. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Detoxification of heavy metals using earthworms

Turgay, O.C., Kızılkaya, R., Karaca, A., Çetin, S.C., 2011.
Detoxification of Heavy Metals, Vol 30, pp.407-421. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Turgay, O.C., Kızılkaya, R., Karaca, A., Çetin, S.C., 2011. Detoxification of heavy metals using earthworms. In: I. Sherameti, A. Varma (eds.), Detoxification of Heavy Metals, Vol 30, pp.407-421. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Role of plant growth promoting bacteria and fungi in heavy metal detoxification

Çetin, S.C., Karaca, A., Kızılkaya, R., Turgay, O.C., 2011.
Detoxification of Heavy Metals, Vol 30, pp. 369-388. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Çetin, S.C., Karaca, A., Kızılkaya, R., Turgay, O.C., 2011. Role of plant growth promoting bacteria and fungi in heavy metal detoxification. In: I.Sherameti, A.Varma (eds.), Detoxification of Heavy Metals, Vol 30, pp. 369-388. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Application of geostatistical methods to heavy metals status in Çarsamba plain soils

Saglam, M., Dengiz, O., Özyazıcı, M.A., Kızılkaya, R., 2011.
Asian Journal of Chemistry 23(8), 3454-3460.

Abstract

The understanding of the spatial variability of soil heavy metals is an important precondition for potential contamination risk and evaluating eco-environment quality in a primary arable soil. To date, little research on soil pollution in Çarsamba delta plain has been conducted. To identify the concentrations and sources of heavy metals, 174 soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected from the study area. Subsequently, the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the samples were analyzed. In order to evaluate natural or anthropogenic sources of heavy metal content and their spatial distribution in agricultural fields of Çarsamba delta plain and near district soil, statistics, geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) were used. GIS technology was employed to produce spatial distribution maps of the 6 elements. The results showed that the concentration of Ni exceeded its threshold level. The local pollution from Ni was attributed to the natural and anthropogenic influences. The concentrations of the other heavy metals are relatively lower than the critical values. The mean values of the heavy metal contents arranged in the following decreasing order: Ni > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Cd in the study area. In some regions of the study area, the Cd, Cu and Zn contents were also slightly raised, possibly due to excessive P fertilization and field traffic.

Spatial distribution of heavy metals status in Bafra plain soils in Turkey

Kızılkaya, R., Dengiz, O., Özyazıcı, M.A., Aşkın, T., Mikayilsoy, F., Shein, E., 2011.
Eurasian Soil Science 44(12), 1343-1351.

Abstract

For analyzing the spatial distribution of the Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and heavy metal (HM) sources on the Bafra deltaic plain (the central Black Sea district of Turkey), 108 soil samples were collected from the 0- to 20-cm layer in an area of about 100 thousand ha. The soil enrichment factor (the ratio between the metal concentration in the soil samples and its content in the earth’s crust (EF)) was calculated to reveal the origin of the heavy metal (HM) pollution (natural or anthropogenic). Kriging interpolation and maps of the soil’s enrichment factors were used for the characterization of the spatial HM distribution. The maximal EF was found for Cd (12.826), while smaller EF values characterized the Pb, Ni, Co, and Cu. In some districts of the studied region, the Cd, Cu, and Zn concentrations were somewhat greater, probably, due to the application of high rates of phosphorus fertilizers and intense soil cultivation. A content exceeding the critical value was recorded for Ni. Probably, this fact was related to the elevated content of this metal in the parent rocks. None of the investigated soils can be referred to the category of polluted ones.

Seasonal variation of N, P, K and Ca content of leaf, crown and root of ‘Sweet Charlie’ strawberry under different irradiation

Demirsoy, L., Demirsoy, H., Ersoy, B., Balci, G., Kızılkaya, R., 2010.
Zemdirbyste-Agriculture 97(1), 23-32

Abstract

The current study was designed to determine the seasonal dynamics of mineral nutrient contents (N, P, K and Ca) in the leaf, crown, and root under different irradiation in the strawberry cultivar 'Sweet Charlie'. The experiment involved three treatments: greenhouse check (GC), constant shading (CS), and open field (OF). Leaf, crown, and root samples were obtained from the plants at different growth stages, and mineral contents were determined by the standard method of dry ashing. The contents of all elements tested were expressed in % dry weight. The nutrient contents in leaf, crown and root changed according to different treatments and plant growth periods. In general, N, P and K contents in all treatments decreased during flowering and harvest period since they were used for fruit. Calcium uptake showed a peak at the time of flowering and during fruit ripening because of increasing temperature. Nutrient contents in individual plant organs in OF was lower than in CS and GC during the experiment.

Variation of land use and land cover effects on soil some physico-chemical characteristics and soil enzyme activity

Kızılkaya, R., Dengiz, O., 2010.
Zemdirbyste-Agriculture 97(2), 15-24

Abstract

The main objective of this study was to determine some chemical, physical properties and extracellular enzymatic activities of soil modified after forestland transformation into cropland and pasture in cankiri-Uludere watershed. In this study, the changes in the properties of four different pedons classified as Lithic Leptosol (Lithic Xerorthent, Dystric Cambisol (Typic Dystroxerept, CMd) and Haplic Cambisol (Typic Haploxerept, CMha) located on three adjacent land use types which are native forest, pasture and cultivated fields include some extracellular enzymes, organic matter, pH, EC, CaCO(3), bulk density, total porosity, hydraulic conductivity and aggregate stability. The effects of agricultural practices on soil properties taken from each four adjacent land use types were most clearly detected in the past 50 years with the land use change. Land use change and subsequent tillage practices resulted in significant decreases in organic matter, total porosity, total nitrogen and soil aggregates stability. There was also a significant change in bulk density among cultivat, pasture and natural forest soils. Depending upon the increasing in bulk density and disruption of pores by cultivation, total porosity decreased accordingly. The data show that after long term continuous cultivation of the natural forest soils resulted in change in soils both in physical and chemical characteristics. In addition, it was found that changes of land use and land cover associated with organic matter content can alter the soil enzyme activities within the soil profile.

Effects of heavy metals on soil enzyme activities

Karaca, A., Çetin, S.C., Turgay, O.C., Kızılkaya, R., 2010.
Soil Heavy Metals, Soil Biology, Vol 19, pp.237-262. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Karaca, A., Çetin, S.C., Turgay, O.C., Kızılkaya, R., 2010. Effects of heavy metals on soil enzyme activities.  In: I.Sherameti and A.Varma (eds.), Soil Heavy Metals, Soil Biology, Vol 19, pp.237-262. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Effects of earthworms on the availability and removal of heavy metals in soils

Karaca, A., Kızılkaya, R., Turgay, O.C., Çetin, S.C., 2010.
Soil Heavy Metals, Soil Biology, Vol 19, pp.369-388. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Karaca, A., Kızılkaya, R., Turgay, O.C., Çetin, S.C., 2010. Effects of earthworms on the availability and removal of heavy metals in soils. In: I.Sherameti and A.Varma (eds.), Soil Heavy Metals, Soil Biology, Vol 19, pp.369-388. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Vermicompost effects on the wheat yield and nutrient contents in soil and plant

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen Türkay, F.Ş., Türkmen, C., Durmuş, M., 2010.
International Conference on Soil Fertility and Soil Productivity, March 17-20, 2010. Berlin, Germany. Abstract Book. p.146.

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen Türkay, F.Ş., Türkmen, C., Durmuş, M., 2010. Vermicompost effects on the wheat yield and nutrient contents in soil and plant. International Conference on Soil Fertility and Soil Productivity, March 17-20, 2010. Berlin, Germany. Abstract Book. p.146.

Isolation, characterisation and identification of native Azotobacter spp. strains

Kızılkaya, R., Sazak, A., Şahin, N., 2010.
International Soil Science Congress on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Quality. May 26-28, 2010. Samsun, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-7636-72-4), pp. 202-205.

Kızılkaya, R., Sazak, A., Şahin, N., 2010. Isolation, characterisation and identification of native Azotobacter spp. strains. International Soil Science Congress on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Quality. May 26-28, 2010. Samsun, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-7636-72-4), pp. 202-205.

Effect of zinc contamination with and without sewage sludge on soil dehydrogenase activity

Bayraklı, B., Kızılkaya, R., 2010.
International Soil Science Congress on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Quality. May 26-28, 2010. Samsun, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-7636-72-4), pp. 566-572.

Bayraklı, B., Kızılkaya, R., 2010. Effect of zinc contamination with and without sewage sludge on soil dehydrogenase activity. International Soil Science Congress on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Quality. May 26-28, 2010. Samsun, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-7636-72-4), pp. 566-572.

Changes of soil microbial biomass C and basal soil respiration in different land use and land cover

Kızılkaya, R., Dengiz, O., Alparslan, T., Durmuş, M., Işıldak, V., Aksu, S., 2010.
International Soil Science Congress on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Quality. May 26-28, 2010. Samsun, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-7636-72-4), pp. 1039-1046.

Kızılkaya, R., Dengiz, O., Alparslan, T., Durmuş, M., Işıldak, V., Aksu, S., 2010. Changes of soil microbial biomass C and basal soil respiration in different land use and land cover. International Soil Science Congress on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Quality. May 26-28, 2010. Samsun, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-7636-72-4), pp. 1039-1046.

Enzyme and earthworm activities during vermicomposting in sewage sludge.

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen Türkay, F.Ş., Bayraklı, B., Aşkın, T., Türkmen, C., Akça, İ., Ceyhan, V., 2010.
International Soil Science Congress on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Quality. May 26-28, 2010. Samsun, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-7636-72-4), pp. 1047-1054.

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen Türkay, F.Ş., Bayraklı, B., Aşkın, T., Türkmen, C., Akça, İ., Ceyhan, V., 2010. Enzyme and earthworm activities during vermicomposting in sewage sludge. International Soil Science Congress on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Quality. May 26-28, 2010. Samsun, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-7636-72-4), pp. 1047-1054.

Effects of 3 different Streptomyces spp. isolates on tomato plant growth and root knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) (Heteroderidae: Tylenchida: Nematoda)

Mennan, S., Aydınlı, G., Şahin, N., Sazak, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2010.
International Soil Science Congress on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Quality. May 26-28, 2010. Samsun, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-7636-72-4), pp. 1086-1091.

Mennan, S., Aydınlı, G., Şahin, N., Sazak, A., Kızılkaya, R., 2010. Effects of 3 different Streptomyces spp. isolates on tomato plant growth and root knot nematode (Meloidogyne arenaria) (Heteroderidae: Tylenchida: Nematoda). International Soil Science Congress on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Quality. May 26-28, 2010. Samsun, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-7636-72-4), pp. 1086-1091.

Effects of different application doses of sewage sludge on microbial biomass C and basal respiration in soil and in earthworm L. terrestris L. cast.

Hepşen Türkay, F.Ş., Kızılkaya, R., 2010.
International Soil Science Congress on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Quality. May 26-28, 2010. Samsun, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-7636-72-4), pp. 1111-1117.

Hepşen Türkay, F.Ş., Kızılkaya, R., 2010. Effects of different application doses of sewage sludge on microbial biomass C and basal respiration in soil and in earthworm L. terrestris L. cast. International Soil Science Congress on Management of Natural Resources to Sustain Soil Health and Quality. May 26-28, 2010. Samsun, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-975-7636-72-4), pp. 1111-1117.

Effect of different organic wastes on microbiological characteristics of maize (Zea Mays Indendata) rhizosphere and root free soil.

Kızılkaya, R., Kablan Delge N., 2010.
International Scientific and Practical Conference on Scientific Support – To Innovative Development of the Agro-Industrial Complex), November 18-19, 2010. Perm, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-94279-094-3), pp. 71-76.

Kızılkaya, R., Kablan Delge N., 2010. Effect of different organic wastes on microbiological characteristics of maize (Zea Mays Indendata) rhizosphere and root free soil. International Scientific and Practical Conference on Scientific Support – To Innovative Development of the Agro-Industrial Complex), November 18-19, 2010. Perm, Russia. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-5-94279-094-3), pp. 71-76.

Fındık zurufu ve ahır gübresi ile vermikompostlanmış arıtma çamurunun buğday bitkisinin verim ve Zn, Cu ve Ni kapsamına etkisinin belirlenmesi

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen Türkay, F.Ş., Bayraklı, B., Erkoçak, A., 2010.
1. Ulusal Toprak ve Su Kaynakları Kongresi. 1-4 Haziran 2010, Eskişehir. Bildiriler Kitabı s.649-655.

Özet

Arıtma çamurunun (AÇ), Fındık zurufu (FZ) ve yataklık olarak kullanılan ahır gübresinin (AG) epijeik Eisenia fetida türü solucanlar ile kompostlanması sonucu elde edilen vermikompostun sera koşullarında buğday bitkisinin (Triticum aestium) dane ve sap verimi ile buğday bitkisinin Zn, Cu ve Ni kapsamlarına etkisi sera koşullarında belirlenmiştir. Denemede materyal olarak Ankara Merkezi Atıksu Arıtma Tesisinden temin edilen arıtma çamuru, Ordu ilindeki fındık arazilerinden temin edilen fındık zurufu, Samsun’dan temin edilen ahır gübresi ile ahır gübrelerinin içerisinden toplanan ve teşhisleri yapılan Eisenia fetida türü solucanlar kullanılmıştır. Sera denemesi için toprak  ise Amasya, Merzifon’dan alınmıştır.  Denemede arıtma çamuru ile fındık zurufu ve ahır gübresinin 6 farklı karışım oranı (%0 AÇ+%50 FZ+%50 AG; %10 AÇ+%45 FZ+%45 AG; %20 AÇ+%40 FZ+%40 AG; %30 AÇ+%35 FZ+%35 AG; %40 AÇ+%30 FZ+%30 AG; %50 AÇ+%25 FZ+%25 AG) kullanılarak vermikompost elde edilmiştir. Sera koşullarında 90 gün süren denemede Yazlık buğday çeşidi olan Pandas’ın verim ve ağır metal kapsamları üzerine elde edilen vermikompostların etkisi belirlenmiştir. Deneme sonunda, buğday bitkisinin dane verimlerinin 322,50 - 626,83 kg/da arasında değiştiği belirlenmiş olup, en yüksek dane verimi ise  %50 AÇ+%25 FZ+%25 AG karışımından elde edilmiştir. Buna karşın, bu karışımın vermikompostlanmadan uygulandığı saksılar ile karşılaştırıldığında, organik atıkların vermikompostlanarak topraklara uygulanmasının bitki verimini daha fazla artırdığı belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, karışımlardaki arıtma çamurunun miktarının artışına bağlı olarak buğday bitkisinin de ağır metal içeriğinde önemli artışların olduğu, solucanlar ile organik materyallerin ve arıtma çamurunun kompostlanması durumunda bitkilerdeki toksik metal içeriğinin vermikompostlanmamış uygulamalara göre daha düşük düzeylerde olduğu saptanmıştır.

Nitrogen fixation capacity of Azotobacter spp. strains isolated from soils in different ecosystems and relationship between them and the microbiological properties of soils

Kızılkaya, R., 2009.
Journal of Environmental Biology 30(1), 73-82

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to count and culture Azotobacter spp. in sampled soils, to determine the nitrogen (N) fixing capacity by Azotobacter spp. in pure culture and different soils, and to explore the relationships between N fixation capacity of Azotobacter slop. and microbiological properties of soils in Northern Anatolia, Turkey. Statistically significant relationships were found between the population of Azotobacter spp. in soils and microbial biomass C (C(mic)), dehydrogenase (DHA), beta-glucosidase (GA), alkaline phosphatase (APA) and arylsulphatase (ASA) activities, However, relationships between the population of Azotobacter sop. and basal soil respiration (BSR), urease (UA) and catalase (CA) activities were insignificant. The N fixation capacities of native 3 day old Azotobacter chroococcum strains added to Ashby Media varied from 3.50 to 29.35 mu g N ml(-1) on average 10.24. In addition, N fixation capacities of Azotobacter sop. strains inoculated with clayey soil, loam soil, and sandy clay loam soil during eight week incubation period were 4.78-15.91 mu g N g(-1), 9.03-13.47 mu g N g(-1) and 6.51-16.60 mu g N g(-1), respectively. It was concluded that the most N fixation by Azotobacter spp. was in sandy clay loam soils.

Soil basal respiration and dehydrogenase activity of aggregates: a study in a toposequence of pasture soils

Aşkin, T., Kızılkaya, R., 2009.
Zemdirbyste-Agriculture 96(1), 98-112

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine changes in soil basal respiration (BR) and dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in soil aggregates along a pasture slope. Soil samples from 0-50 mm depth were taken from three landscape positions (crest, midslope and footslope) of a pasture in Samsun, Turkey. For each landscape position, soil aggregates were separated into eight aggregate size classes using a dry sieving method and then microbiological properties and organic carbon content (C(org)) were analysed. At all positions, the contents of macroaggregates (especially 841-1190 pm and 1190-1680 mu m) were higher than microaggregates. The contents of C(org) varied between 0.65-2.08%. The highest C(org) contents were found in footslope positions, and the lowest in midslope. All microbiological properties were higher at footslope position than at the other positions. Generally, BR and DHA were higher in microaggregates < 250 mu m, in macroaggregates of 250-420, 420-841, 841-1190 pm than in the other aggregate size classes at all positions, whereas C(org):C(mic) BR:C(mic) and DHA:C(mic) ratios were higher in macroaggregates of 1190-1680, 1680-2380, 2380-4760 mu m than the other macro- and microaggregate size. Consequently, macroaggregates had relatively more C(org) than the microaggregates, even if the absolute values of BR and DHA were the lower.

Effects of different application doses of sewage sludge on microbial biomass and CO2 production of soil and earthworm Lumbricus terrestris cast

Hepsen, F.S., Kızılkaya, R., 2009.
International Meeting on Soil Fertility Land Management and Agroclimatology. October 29 – November 1, 2008. Kusadasi, Turkey. Abstract Book. p.120.

Hepsen, F.S., Kızılkaya, R., 2009. Effects of different application doses of sewage sludge on microbial biomass and CO2 production of soil and earthworm Lumbricus terrestris cast. International Meeting on Soil Fertility Land Management and Agroclimatology. October 29 – November 1, 2008. Kusadasi, Turkey. Abstract Book. p.120.

Determination of total and mobile Pb fractions during vermicomposting in sewage sludge.

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, F.Ş., Akça, İ., Bayraklı, B., Aşkın, T., Türkmen, C., 2009.
International Symposium on Environment – 2009. May 20-23, 2009. Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. CD of Proceedings.

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, F.Ş., Akça, İ., Bayraklı, B., Aşkın, T., Türkmen, C., 2009. Determination of total and mobile Pb fractions during vermicomposting in sewage sludge. International Symposium on Environment – 2009. May 20-23, 2009. Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. CD of Proceedings, pp.xx-xx.

Effects of different application doses of sewage sludge on microbial biomass and CO2 production of soil and earthworm Lumbricus terrestris cast

Hepsen, F.S., Kızılkaya, R., 2009.
Tenth Baku International Congress, Energy, Ecology, Economy. September 23-25, 2009. Baku, Azerbaijan. Book of Proceedings, pp. 384-389.

Hepsen, F.S., Kızılkaya, R., 2009. Effects of different application doses of sewage sludge on microbial biomass and CO2 production of soil and earthworm Lumbricus terrestris cast. Tenth Baku International Congress, Energy, Ecology, Economy. September 23-25, 2009. Baku, Azerbaijan. Book of Proceedings, pp. 384-389.

Organik atıkların toprakta üreaz aktivitesine ait termodinamik parametrelere etkisi

Ekberli, İ., Kızılkaya, R., Kars, N., 2009.
Anadolu Tarım Bilimleri Dergisi 24(1), 44-53.

Abstract

Bu çalışmada, killi tın bünyeli toprağa tütün ve çay atığı, fındık zurufu, buğday samanı gibi organik atık uygulamalarının , üreaz aktivitesi ve bu enzimin aktivitesine ait termodinamik parametreler üzerine olan etkisi araştırılmıştır. Denemede kullanılan organik atıklar kuru ağırlık üzerinden %5 oranında toprağa karıştırılmış, 25 ± 0.5°C’ de 30 gün inkübasyona bırakılmıştır. İnkübasyon sonunda farklı substrat konsantrasyonları (%0, %1, %2, %4, %6, %8, %10, %12), inkübasyon periyotları (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ve 6 saat) ve inkübasyon sıcaklıklarında (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 ve 50°C) topraklardaki üreaz aktivitesi belirlenerek termodinamik parametreler hesaplanmıştır. Deneme sonunda, organik atık uygulamasının üreaz aktivitesini önemli düzeyde artırdığı ve atıkların etkinliklerinin tütün atığı>çay atığı> fındık zurufu> buğday samanı şeklinde sıralandığı saptanmıştır. Genellikle, kontrol ve organik atık uygulanmış topraklarda tüm substrat konsantrasyonlardaki üreaz aktivitesi değerlerinin 40-50 °C sıcaklıklarında diğerlerine oranla daha hızlı bir artış gösterdiği belirlenmiştir. Tüm uygulamalarda üreaz aktivitesine ait termodinamik parametrelerin değerleri farklılık göstermiştir. değerlerinin tütün atığı uygulanmasında en düşük (5.255-8.341 kJmol-1), buğday samanı uygulamasında ise en yüksek (17.189-24.414 kJmol-1) olduğu saptanmıştır. En düşük (2.786-5.876 kJmol-1) değerleri tütün atığı uygulanmış toprakta belirlenmiştir. Tüm uygulamalarda değerlerinin negatif olduğu, %10-12 substrat konsantrasyonu düzeylerinde sabitleştiği; değerlerinin ise 68.965-83.869 kJmol-1 aralığında değiştiği saptanmıştır. katsayısının en yüksek değerleri (1.212-1.477) buğday samanı, en düşük değerleri (1.061-1.169) ise tütün atığı uygulanmasında bulunmuştur

Dehydrogenase activity in Lumbricus terrestris casts and surrounding soil affected by addition of different organic wastes and Zn

Kızılkaya, R., 2008.
Bioresource Technology 99(5), 946–953

Abstract

A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different organic wastes such as wheat straw (WS), tea production waste (TEW), tobacco production waste (TOW), cow manure (CM) and hazelnut husk (HH) on dehydrogenase activity (DHA) in casts of earthworm Lumbricus terrestris and surrounding soil using 5% (dry weight) application rates associated with increasing doses of Zn (0, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mu g g(-1)). Twenty one days after treatment of Zn and organic wastes, the DHA analyses were carried out on collected casts and soil samples. In general, all organic waste treatments influenced the DHA, the contents of organic C, N and available Zn in earthworm L. terrestris casts and the surrounding soil in comparison with the control. DHA in casts exceeded that in the surrounding soil without Zn additions. After Zn application of 50 mu g Zn g(-1) in all organic waste treatments and the control, the DHA level in casts and surrounding soil increased significantly. It decreased by application rates of 100, 250, 500 and 1000 mu g Zn g(-1) consecutively in all organic waste applications. The addition of wastes with low C/N ratio and high Zn content (TEW, TOW, CM) inhibited the DHA in both cast and surrounding soil. (c) 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Yield response and nitrogen concentrations of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) inoculated with Azotobacter chroococcum strains

Kızılkaya R., 2008.
Ecological Engineering 33(2), 150-156

Abstract

This study explored the effectiveness of non-indigenous and indigenous Azotobacter chroococcum strains on yield response and N concentrations of spring wheat cultivation under greenhouse and field conditions in Merzifon, Turkey. The non-indigenous, A. chroococcum strain Beijerinck 1901 (DSMZ 2286), was tested in the study. Ten indigenous strains of A. chroococcum were isolated from various sources in Northern Anatolia, Turkey. Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum) were inoculated with 11 bacterial strains of A. chroococcum; Beijerinck 1901, RK33, RK34, RK38, RK39, RK40, RK41, RK46, RK48, RK49 and RK50. Plants were harvested for 83 days in pots and 106 days in plots after sowing. Research result showed that all A. chroococcum strains had positive effect on the yield and N concentrations of wheat. Also, indigenous strain A. chroococcum RK49 had the highest effects on yield and increased the production of grain yield by 84% in field experiment and by in 95% pot experiment compared to control treatment without A. Chroococcum inoculation. Based on the research results, it was suggested that the use of indigenous A. chroococcum strains might be suitable when producing and using bio-fertilizer. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Determination of the effects of hazelnut husk and tea waste treatments on urease enzyme activity and its kinetics in soil

Kızılkaya, R., Ekberli, İ., 2008.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 32(4), 299-310

Abstract

In this research, the effects of 5% treatment of hazelnut husk (HH) and tea production waste (TEW) to clay loam Soil on urease enzyme activity and its kinetics were determined in a 30-day soil incubation experiment. For this purpose, kinetic parameters (V-max, K-m, and V-max/K-m,) were calculated by determining urease activity in organic wastes treated soils in different substrate concentrations (0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, and 12%), incubation periods (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h), and incubation temperatures (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees C) at the end of the 30 days of the incubation. The results of the study showed that: a) Treatments of soil with hazelnut husk and tea waste increased urease activity in soil, b) the reaction velocity increased as substrate concentration increased, however this increase continued up to 8% substrate concentration level in control soil and 10% substrate concentration level in organic waste amendment soil, c) While the reaction velocity of control soil became constant at 10% substrate concentration level, it became constant at 12% substrate concentration level in organic waste amendment soil. In both control and soil treated with organic wastes, the highest reaction velocity in substrate concentrations was determined at the incubation temperature of 50 degrees C. The highest V-max in control and soil treated with organic wastes (TEW and HH) was observed at 50 degrees C. The highest K-m was observed at 40 degrees C in control and at 50 degrees C in TEW and HH treatments. The highest V-max/K-m was observed at 50 degrees C in control, at 30 degrees C in HH treatment, and at 40 degrees C in TEW treatment soils.

Pesticides concentration and some quality parameters of surface and underground water in specially protected area of Salt Lake, Turkey

Köksal, E.S., Benli, B., İlbeyi, A., Kızılkaya, R., Özcan, H., Güntürk, A., Dengiz, O., 2008.
Conference on Water Observation and Information Sysytem for Decision Support, BALWOIS 2008. May 27-31 2008. Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia. CD of Proceedings, pp.1/11-10/11.

Köksal, E.S., Benli, B., İlbeyi, A., Kızılkaya, R., Özcan, H., Güntürk, A., Dengiz, O., 2008. Pesticides concentration and some quality parameters of surface and underground water in specially protected area of Salt Lake, Turkey. Conference on Water Observation and Information Sysytem for Decision Support, BALWOIS 2008. May 27-31 2008. Ohrid, Republic of Macedonia. CD of Proceedings, pp.1/11-10/11.

Effects of different topographic positions on soil properties and soil enzymes activities

Dengiz, O., Kızılkaya, R., Göl, C., Hepşen, Ş., 2007.
Asian Journal of Chemistry 19(3), 2295-2306

Abstract

The main objectives of this study were (i) to determine physical and chemical properties of six different soils (ii) to measure the range and degree of three soil enzyme activities, (iii) to evaluate the influence of soil properties on soil enzyme activities in the both sides of the Cankiri-Aciqay river associated with specific landforms and different slope gradient. While right side soils of the Acicay river are formed on quaternary alluvial deposits that find on terrace and floodplain, left side soils formed from quaternary alluvium, alluvial-collivial material and oligomiocene gypsum and salt strata located on floodplain, terrace and steep lands, respectively. Soil properties data of both sides of Acicay river soils indicated significantly differences each other in terms of pedogenic processes which have been shaped by landscape position and parent material. According to soil taxonomy, 6 different soils were determined and classified as entisol, inceptisol and mollisol along transect. In addition, it was found that changes of landscape positions associated with erosion and organic matter content can alter the soil enzyme activities within the soil profile and along different slope.

Sequential micronutrients extraction from toposequences of pasture soils

Özdemir, N., Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., Yakupoğlu, T., 2007.
Asian Journal of Chemistry 19(5), 4025-4034

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine changes in soil properties and micronutrient content (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn) development along a slope in pasture soils. The study area is located in Kocadag, Samsun, Turkey. Three landscape positions i.e., summit, backslope and footslope, were selected. Soil samples for all genetic horizons were taken from all landscape positions of pasture. Some physico-chemical properties such as organic matter content, pH, CaCO3, exchangeable cations and sequential micronutrient fractions (exchangeable, organically complexed, manganese oxide bounded, amorphous and crystalline iron oxide bounded and residual) were determined. All micronutrient pools, horizons were affected by slope position. The micronutrient fractions and particularly the exchangeable (EX-), organically complexed (OM-) fractions tended to decline with soil dept. The residual fraction (R-) was proportionally the largest fraction and EX- and OM- fraction were the smallest fractions at all horizon and landscape position. In footslope position, the soils had generally the higher total micronutrient contents and their R- fractions than the other positions at all genetic horizons. In all positions, except for R- fraction, micronutrient fractions in soils decreased from the surface downward indicating that the major part of the location is existed to the A horizon.

Microbiological properties in earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. cast and surrounding soil amended with various organic wastes

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., 2007.
Communication in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 38(19-20), 2861-2876

Abstract

Changes produced in the microbiological properties of earthworm Lumbricus terrestris casts and surrounding soil by the addition of various organic wastes such as wheat straw (WS), tea production waste (TEW), tobacco production waste (TOW), cow manure (CM), and hazelnut husk (HH) were evaluated in an incubation experiment. Twenty-one days after organic waste treatment, analyses of microbial biomass (Cmic), basal soil respiration (BSR), metabolic quotient (qCO(2)), and enzyme activities (dehydrogenase, catalase, beta-glucosidase, urease, alkaline phosphatase, and arylsulphatase) were carried out on collected cast and soil samples. Addition of organic wastes to the soil increased values of Cmic, BSR, and enzyme activities in soil and earthworm casts, indicating activation by microorganisms. Except for catalase activity, these values of microbiological parameters in casts were higher than in surrounding soil at all waste treatments and control. The addition of organic wastes caused a rapid and significant increase in organic carbon, total nitrogen, and microbiological properties in both soils; this increase was especially noticeable in soils treated with TEW.

Urease activity and its kinetics in soil treated with tobacco waste and wheat straw

Kızılkaya, R., Ekberli, İ., Kars, N., 2007.
Tarım Bilimlerı Dergisi - Journal of Agricultural Sciences 13(3), 186-194

Abstract

This research was conducted to determine the effects of tobacco waste and straw incorporated to soil on urease activity and kinetics by an incubation experiment. For this purpose, clay loam soil sample and organic wastes were mixed until reaching 5% dry weight and this mixture was incubated in 25 +/- 0.5 degrees C temperature for 30 days. Following incubation period, urease activity and changing of kinetic parameters were searched in soil samples in different substrate concentrations (0,1,2,4,6,8,10 and 12%), incubation periods (0,1,2,3,4,5 and 6 hours) and incubation temperatures (0,10,20,30,40 and 50 degrees C). Research results showed that treatments of tobacco waste and wheat straw increased urease activity in soil. It was also determined that reaction velocity increased until the level of 8% substrate concentration for control and 10% for tobacco waste and wheat straw treatments. Then it did not change for both of them when exceeding these thresholds. The highest reaction velocity in all substrate concentrations was observed in 50 degrees C incubation temperature for all soil samples including control. In all treatments, the highest V(max) and K(m) values were measured between 40-50 degrees C. In addition, the highest V(max)/K(m) ratio for control and soil treated with organic wastes were observed in 50 degrees C and 40 degrees C, respectively.

The spatial variability of soil dehydrogenase activity: a survey in urban soils

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., 2007.
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 72(1), 89-94

Abstract

Information on soil microorganisms and their activity used to determine microbiological characteristics are very important for soil quality and productivity. Studies of enzyme activities provide information on the biochemical processes occurring in soil. Th ere is growing evidence that soil biological parameters may be potential and sensitive indicators of soil ecological conditions and soil management. Soil microbiological parameters may be evaluated statistically due to application of geostatistical methods to soil science. Measurement of soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA) has been used to establish indices of soil microbiological activity. The objective of this study was to assess the spatial variability of the DHA using the geostatistics in the topsoils of an urban area. DHA along a transect in an urban area was determined using 39 soil samples from the upper 20 cm of soil varied from 10.7-258.4 μg TPF g-1 soil respectively. The spherical model fits the best semivariogram model for DHA and exhibited spatial dependence with range of influence of approximately 48.2 km.

Spatial distribution patterns of soil microbial biomass carbon within the pasture

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R. 2007.
Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus 72(1), 75-79.

Abstracts
Soil microbial biomass (Cmic) is the indicator of ecosystem productivity. Although Cmic represents big part of a temperate pasture ecosystem the biomass of the vegetation of the vegetation represents even bigger part, yet most of the carbon-energy balance and nutrient mobility happens through the Cmic. The purpose of this study was to assess the spatial variability of the soil Cmic using geostatistics in surface soil of pasture. Cmic was determined using 77 soil samples from the upper 20 cm of soil along a transect in a pasture of 1.35 ha. The results varied from 547.7 to 1223.8 μg CO2-C g–1 soil. The exponential model fits the best semivariogram model for Cmic and exhibited spatial dependence with a range of influence of approximately 294.1 m.

Relationships between phosphatase activity and phosphorus fractions in agricultural soils

Kızılkaya, R., Bayraklı, F., Sürücü, A., 2007.
International Journal of Soil Science 2(2), 107-118

Abstract

Soil phosphatases play a major role in the mineralization processes of organic phosphorus. The activity of soil phosphatases can be influenced by numerous factors and soil physico-chemical properties play a key role among them. Our research adds to the growing knowledge on soil acid (ACPA), neutral (NEPA) and alkaline phosphatase with some soil properties and total P (Ptotal), organic P (Porg), bioavailable P and inorganic phosphorus (Pinorg) fractions such as soluble and loosely bound phosphorus (Psoluble), aluminum phosphates (Al-P), iron phosphates (Fe-P), reductant soluble phosphorus (Preductant) calcium phosphates (Ca-P) and strongly adsorbed Fe and Al phosphates (Fixed-P) fractions in agricultural soils of Çarşamba Plain, Turkey. ALPA, 24.6-138.6 μg phenol g-1 3 h-1, was significantly higher than NEPA, 11.5-84.1 μg phenol g-1 3 h-1and ACPA, 8.6 - 64.1 μg phenol g-1 3 h-1, in the studied soils. Ptotal contents in the soils ranged from 400.8 - 745.0 μg P g-1 with an average 570 μg P g-1. Phosphorus was mostly concentrated in the Pinorg (57%) although it was also present in Porg (12%) and Presidual (31%). On the average, percent of Pinorg associated with different fractions in these soils was in the decreasing order of: Ca-P > Fixed-P > Preductant > Al-P > Fe-P > Psoluble. On the basis of results obtained in this study, phosphatase activies showed significant correlations with the Ptotal, Porg, bioavailable P and some Pinorg fractions (Ca-P and Psoluble). These results suggested that Ca-P is major Pinorg compound on the effects of soil phosphatase activity in agricultural soils of Çarşamba Plain, Turkey.

B-Glucosidase enzyme activity and its relationships with physico-chemical properties in Çatalkaya basin, Ankara

Kızılkaya, R., Dengiz, O., Hepşen, Ş., Başkan, O., 2007.
Ninth Baku International Congress, Energy, Ecology, Economy. June 7-9, 2007. Baku, Azerbaijan. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-9952-419-48-1), pp. 54-58.

Kızılkaya, R., Dengiz, O., Hepşen, Ş., Başkan, O., 2007. b-Glucosidase enzyme activity and its relationships with physico-chemical properties in Çatalkaya basin, Ankara. Ninth Baku International Congress, Energy, Ecology, Economy. June 7-9, 2007. Baku, Azerbaijan. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 978-9952-419-48-1), pp. 54-58.

Determination of sewage sludge soil treatments effect on Cu bioaccumulation by earthworms and Cu contents of casts and surrounding soil

Hepşen, F.Ş., Kızılkaya, R., 2007.
14th International conference of students, PhD students and young scientists, Lomosonov-2007. April 10-14, 2007. Moscow, Russia. Book of Proceedings, pp. 2-3.

Hepşen, F.Ş., Kızılkaya, R., 2007. Determination of sewage sludge soil treatments effect on Cu bioaccumulation by earthworms and Cu contents of casts and surrounding soil. 14th International conference of students, PhD students and young scientists, Lomosonov-2007. April 10-14, 2007. Moscow, Russia. Book of Proceedings, pp. 2-3.

The effects of various organic wastes applied into eroded soil on dehydrogenase enzyme activity

Yakupoğlu, T., Hepşen, F.Ş., Özdemir, N., Kızılkaya, R., 2007.
II. International Conference on Environmental, Industrial and Applied Microbiology (BioMicroWorld 2007). November 28- December 1, 2007. Seville, Spain. Book of Proceedings, pp. 97-101.

Yakupoğlu, T., Hepşen, F.Ş., Özdemir, N., Kızılkaya, R., 2007. The effects of various organic wastes applied into eroded soil on dehydrogenase enzyme activity. II. International Conference on Environmental, Industrial and Applied Microbiology (BioMicroWorld 2007). November 28- December 1, 2007. Seville, Spain. Book of Proceedings, pp. 97-101.

Şekerpancarında yapraklara uygulanan neem preparatının beet soilborne virus ve toprakların biyolojik özellikleri üzerine etkilerinin araştırılması

Yılmaz, N.D.K., Kızılkaya, R., Akça, İ., 2007.
Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 22(1), 5-10.

Özet

Beet soilborne virus (BSBV) şeker pancarı yetiştirilen alanlarda zarar oluşturan önemli virüslerden biri olup vektör protozoa Polymyxa betae Keskin tarafından taşınmaktadır. Yapraklara uygulama sonucunda neem preparatının [Neem Azal-T/S, %10 azadirachtin] şeker pancarında BSBV, vektör P. betae ve toprağın biyolojik özellikleri üzerine etkileri sera şartlarında araştırılmıştır. İncelenen topraklarda BSBV’nin varlığı tuzak bitki testi ve triple antibody sandwich-enzymelinked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA) testleri ile belirlenmiştir. Şeker pancarı köklerinde BSBV’nin konsantrasyonu yapraklara neem preparatı uygulandığında önemli derecede azalmıştır. TAS-ELISA absorbans değerleri 50, 100, 200 ve 400 ppm neem uygulamasında 1000 ppm dozdan daha düşük bulunmuştur. Üstelik, bu çalışmada yapraklara tüm neem uygulamalarında toprak biyolojik özelliklerinin (mikrobiyal biomas karbon, toprak solunumu, dehidrogenaz aktivitesi) kontrollere göre daha yüksek olduğu belirlenmiştir.

Organic and microbial biomass carbon contents of aggregates in a toposequence of pasture soil

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., 2006.
Asian Journal of Chemistry 18(2), 1500-1508

Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine changes in microbial biomass carbon (C-mic) and organic carbon (C-org) of soil aggregates along a pasture slope. Soil samples from 0-50 mm depth were taken from three landscape positions (shoulder, backslope and footslope) of a pasture in Samsun, Turkey. For each landscape position, soil aggregates were separated into eight aggregate size classes using a dry sieving method and then COT was analyzed. At all positions, macroaggregates (especially 841-1190 and 1190-1680 mu m in sizes) were higher than microaggregates. The contents of C-org varied between 0.65 and 2.08%. The highest C-org contents were found in footslope position and the lowest contents in backslope. All properties are higher at footslope position than the other positions. Generally, C-mic was greater in microaggregates of < 250 mu m, in macroaggregates of 250-420, 420-841, 841-1190 mu m than in the other aggregate size at all positions, whereas C-org : C-mic was higher in macroaggregates of 1190-1680, 1680-2380, 2380-4760 mu m than the other macro and microaggregate size. Consequently, in macroaggregates especially this class is relatively more Cor, than the microaggregates, even if the absolute values of Cmic were lower.

Spatial variability and monitoring of Pb contamination of farming soils affected by industry

Cemek, B., Kızılkaya, R., 2006
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 117(1-3), 357-375

In this study, the relationship between some physico-chemical properties of soils and lead contamination in soil due to emission from industrial operations in Samsun province of Turkey was investigated. The extent of timely contamination was studied by comparing the obtained results with the results of the study conducted in the same region in 1998. An area of 225 km(2) (15 km x 15 km), which was divided into 1000 x 1000 m grid squares (16 lines in the east and south directions), was selected within the industrial area. The total of 256 grid points was obtained and soil samples were collected from three depths (0-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm) of each grid center in 2004. The total Pb concentrations of soil samples were determined as 65.84-527.04 mu g g(-1)at 0-5 cm in depth, 58.50 - 399.54 mu g g(-1) at 5-15 cm in depth, and 44.65-330.07 mu g g(-1) at 15-30 cm in depth. DTPA-extractable Pb concentrations of soils were found to be in the range of 1.52-9.03 mu g g(-1)supercript stop, 0.54-7.09 mu g g(-1), 0.19-6.13 mu g g(-1)supercript stop at 0-5, 5-15, and 15-30 cm depths, respectively. There were significant relationships between both total or DTPA-extractable Pb concentrations and selected physico-chemical properties of soil. According to enrichment factor (EF) values calculated from the total Pb concentrations, 11.3% of the study area (225 km(2)) was enriched with Pb in high level, but 77% of the area was in significant enrichment level with Pb. The average total and DTPA-extractable Pb concentrations increased as 11 and 13%, respectively in comparison with the results of 1998.

Catalase enzyme and its kinetic parameters in earthworm L.terrestris casts and surrounding soil

Ekberli, İ., Kızılkaya, R., 2006.
Asian Journal of Chemistry 18(3), 2321-2328

Abstract

Catalase enzyme and its kinetic parameters (V-max, K-m and V-max/K-m) were determined in order to assess adding earthworm L terrestris to the soil. As a result, it has been determined that there is a low level of catalase activities, which is an important criterion in evaluation of aerobic micro-organisms, despite the fact that earthworm casts contain higher levels of organic C and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) in comparison with surrounding soil and the control (the soil in which the earthworms are not included). It was also determined that the highest levels of both catalase activities and kinetic parameters occur in surrounding soil.

Urease enzyme and its kinetic and thermodynamic parameters in clay loam soil

Ekberli, İ., Kızılkaya, R., Kars, N., 2006.
Asian Journal of Chemistry 18(4), 3097-3105

Abstract

In the present work, urease enzyme activity of clay loam soil (pH 7.1, organic matter 2.26%, C/N ratio 16), kinetic (V-max, V-m and V-max/K-m) values and thermodynamic (E-a, Delta H, Delta S, and Delta G) parameters of this enzyme is determined. For this purpose, kinetic and thermodynanic parameters are calculated by determining urease activity in soil in different substrate concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12%), incubation periods (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h) and incubation temp. (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 degrees C). From the results, it is determined, that the speed of reaction starts to become static, while substrate concentration reaches to 8% level and, becomes static at 10% level and the highest speed of reaction in substrate concentration occurs at incubation temperature of 500 degrees C. The highest V-max, V-m and V-max/K-m values are determined at 40 and 50 degrees C and the highest E-a, Delta H and Delta S values are determined in substrate concentration of 10%. It was also determined that Delta G varies between 1.870-2.145 in all substrate concentrations depending on temperature.

Assessing spatial variability of soil enzyme activities in pasture topsoils using geostatistics

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., 2006.
European Journal of Soil Biology 42(4), 230-237

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the spatial variability of the activity of three hydrolytic enzymes, i.e, urease activity (UAc), alkaline phosphatase activity (APAc), and arylsulfatase activity (ASAc), in pasture topsoils using geostatistics. Enzyme activities along a transect in a 1.35-ha pasture were determined using 77 soil samples from the upper 20 cm of soil. UAc varied from 101.0 to 182.7 mu g N g(-1) soil h(-1); APAc varied from 1.56 to 3.62 mu g-nitrophenol g(-1) soil h(-1); and ASAc varied from 1.50 to 3.26 mu g p-nitrophenol g(-1) soil h(-1). The linear models fit the best semivariogram models for UAc, APAc, and ASAc. Semivariograms for enzyme activities exhibited spatial dependence with ranges of influence of approximately 124.7 in. (c) 2006 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

Heavy metal distribution: A survey from Ordu Province in the Black Sea region

Tarakçıoğlu, C., Aşkın, T. Kızılkaya, R., 2006.
American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences 1(3), 282-287

Abstract

Heavy metals may be important trace elements in the nutrition of plants, animals and humans, while others are not known to have positive effects on nutrition status. However, all of these may have toxic effects if they ocur excessively. Actually ordu province, near the Black Sea and part of eastern Turkey, is the center of hazelnut production. The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate some total heavy meta contents such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in soils of agricultural ecosystems in Ordu province from Black Sea region in Turkey. It has been determined total heavy metal contents of soils were 0,3-5,1 mg Cd g-1, 39,7 -245,6 mg Pb g-1, 16,7-270,0 mg Ni g-1, 57,5-316,6 mg Cu g-1 and 35,5-582,5 mg Zn g-1. Relationships between total heavy metal contents and some soil properties were investigated in forty disturbed soil samples. Also, significant relations between total heavy metal contents and some soil properties, especially clay content, were determined at p<0,01.

The spatial variability of soil dehydrogenase activity: a survey in urban soils

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., 2006.
X.Congress of Croatian Society of Soil Science on Soil Functions in the Environment. June 14-17, 2006. Sibenik, Croatia. Abstract Book (ISBN 953-6135-54-X). p.68.

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., 2006. The spatial variability of soil dehydrogenase activity: a survey in urban soils. X.Congress of Croatian Society of Soil Science on Soil Functions in the Environment. June 14-17, 2006. Sibenik, Croatia. Abstract Book (ISBN 953-6135-54-X). p.68.

Spatial distribution patterns of soil microbial biomass carbon within the pasture

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., 2006.
X.Congress of Croatian Society of Soil Science on Soil Functions in the Environment, June 14-17, 2006. Sibenik, Croatia. Abstract Book (ISBN 953-6135-54-X). p.69.

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., 2006. Spatial distribution patterns of soil microbial biomass carbon within the pasture. X.Congress of Croatian Society of Soil Science on Soil Functions in the Environment, June 14-17, 2006. Sibenik, Croatia. Abstract Book (ISBN 953-6135-54-X). p.69.

Copper, lead, cadmium and nickel fractions in agricultural soils: A study in Bafra Plain

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., Gülser, C., 2006.
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology 7(1), 167-177.

Abstract

The objective of the present investigation was to evaluate some total heavy metal contents (Cu, Cd, Ni and Pb) and their fractions, such as exchangeable (EX-), organic (OM-), Mn oxide (MnO-), amorphous Fe oxide (AFeO-), crystalline Fe oxide (CFeO-) and residual (R-) fractions in soils of agricultural ecosystem soils in Bafra Plain in Turkey. Total heavy metal contents and their fractions with some soil properties were investigated in twenty disturbed soil samples. It has been determined that the total heavy metal contents of soils were 25.5-58.5 µg Cu g-1, 1.8-2.7 µg Cd g-1, 76.1-210.4 µg Ni g-1, and 46.8-144.2 µg Pb g-1. On the other hand, the significant relations (p<0.01) were determined between total heavy metal contents and soil clay contents. A sequential fractionation showed that 1.39-13.04 % total heavy metals were EX- (1.39 % Cu, 13.04% Cd, 2.88% Ni, 2.76% Pb), 1.85-4.35 % were OM- (1.85 % Cu, 4.35% Cd, 2.46% Ni, 1.88% Pb), 2.54-13.43 % were MnO- (2.54 % Cu, 8.70% Cd, 5.34% Ni, 13.43% Pb), 8.70-27.25% were AFeO- (19.63 % Cu, 8.70% Cd, 27.25% Ni, 23.99% Pb), 4.35-24.58 % were CFeO- (21.48 % Cu, 4.35% Cd, 24.58% Ni, 22.41% Pb) and 24.19-52.17 % R- (37.18 % Cu, 52.17% Cd, 31.74% Ni, 24.19% Pb). The positive correlations were obtained between the heavy metal fractions, OM-, EX- and Sum-, and some soil properties such as, organic carbon and clay content.

Kuzey Anadolu topraklarının mikrobiyolojik özellikleri ile yerli Azotobacter spp. suşlarının azot fiksasyon kapasitelerinin belirlenmesi

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., Uygun, B., 2006.
Türkiye 3. Organik Tarım Sempozyumu, 1-4 Kasım 2006, Yalova. Bildiriler Kitabı s.94-107.

Özet

Bu çalışmada, Kuzey Anadolu topraklarının mikrobiyolojik özellikleri ile yerli Azotobacter spp. suşlarının N fiksasyon kapasiteleri arasındaki ilişkiler araştırılmıştır. Bu organizmanın lokal olarak dağılımını etkileyebilecek 50 farklı yerden toprak örneği alınmıştır. Yapılan işlemler 3 başlık altında toplanabilir. (1) Alınan toprak örneklerinde Azotobacter spp. ‘lerin izolasyonu ve kültürlerin hazırlanması, (2) saf kültür koşullarında ve farklı tekstürel yapıya sahip topraklara aşılanmak suretiyle N fiksasyon kapasitelerinin belirlenmesi (3) alınan toprak örneklerindeki Azotobacter spp. populasyonu ile mikrobiyolojik özellikler (mikrobiyal biyomas C, toprak solunumu, dehidrogenaz, katalaz, b-glikosidaz, üreaz, alkalin fosfataz ve arilsülfataz) arasındaki ilişkilerin saptanmasıdır.

Alınan toprak örneklerinin fizikokimyasal ve mikrobiyolojik özelliklerinin yanısıra Azotobacter spp. sayıları (ihmal edilebilir düzey ile – 3,04.103 CFU  g-1) belirlenmiştir. Topraklardaki Azotobacter spp. populasyonu ile mikrobiyal biyomas C, dehidrogenaz, B-glikosidaz, alkalin fosfataz ve arilsülfataz aktivitelerinde önemli ilişkiler bulunmasına rağmen toprak solunumu, üreaz ve katalaz aktiviteleri arasındaki ilişkiler arasında önemli bir ilişki bulunmamıştır. Ashby besiyerine ilave edilmiş 3 günlük yerli Azotobacter spp. suşlarının (hücre sayısı, 109 CFU/ml) N fiksasyon kapasiteleri 3,50-29,35 mg N ml-1 arasında belirlenmiştir.  Kil bünyeli, tın bünyeli ve kumlu killi tın bünyeli topraklara aşılanan Azotobacter spp. suşlarının sekiz haftalık inkübasyon periyodu sonunda N fiksasyon kapasiteleri sırasıyla 4,78-15,91 mg N ml-1 (ortalama 7,53 mg N ml-1), 9,03-13,47 mg N ml-1 (ortalama 11,34 mg N ml-1), 6,51-16,60 mg N ml-1 (ortalama 13,69 mg N ml-1) olarak belirlenmiştir. Çalışma sonunda, Azotobacter spp. tarafından yapılan N fiksasyon kapasitesi en yüksek kumlu killi tın bünyeli toprakta olduğu belirlenmiştir.

The role of different organic wastes on zinc bioaccumulation by earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. (Oligochaeta) in successive Zn added soil

Kızılkaya, R., 2005.
Ecological Engineering 25(4), 322-331

Abstract

Organic matter strongly adsorbs zinc and is also the preferred food of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. Earthworms have the potential to accumulate significant levels of zinc, and thus earthworm ingestion may result in zinc transfer to higher trophic levels (e.g. various birds and small mammals). This study examines the zinc bioaccumulation by earthworm L. terrestris and Zn contents in casts due to ingestion of different organic wastes in successive doses of Zn (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, and 1000 g g−1) added soil. Twenty-one days after organic wastes treatment, the cast and earthworm bodies receiving the highest Zn dose showed significantly higher Zn content than the non-treated soil. At all Zn doses, earthworms from soils treated with organic wastes of high C/N ratio (wheat straw and hazelnut husk) had the highest Zn concentrations. In addition, the lowest bioaccumulation factor (BAF) value occurred in low C/N ratio of organic wastes (tea and tobacco production waste). Furthermore, except for the 0gZn g−1 doses, the highest BAF value occurred in 100 gZn g−1 at all organic waste treatment soils.

Effects of azadirachtin on Beet soilborne pomovirus and soil biological properties on sugar beet

Akça, İ., Yılmaz, N.D.K., Kızılkaya, R., 2005.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part B. 40(2), 285-296

Abstract

Beet soilborne pomovirus (BSBV) is an important soilborne virus disease in growing areas of sugar beet. BSBV was transmitted by Polymyxa betae Keskin. Effects of azadirachtin on BSBV and soil biological properties were studied under a greenhouse. The presence of BSBV was tested in soil samples using bait plant test and triple antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA). The concentration of BSBV in sugar beet roots was significantly reduced by the application of azadirachtin to the soils. TAS-ELISA absorption values in 1.52, 3.04, and 7.60 ppm were lower than that 0.38 and 0.76 ppm of azadirachtin. Furthermore, in this study, it was determined the 0.38, 0.76, and 1.52 ppm doses of azadirachtin in soils had high amounts of soil biological properties (Cmic, BSR, DHA), while the 3.04 and 7.60 ppm doses had no statistical significance compared to the control treatments.

Effects of N-enriched sewage sludge on soil enzyme activities

Kızılkaya, R., Bayraklı, B., 2005.
Applied Soil Ecology 30(3), 192-202

Abstract

Sewage sludge is increasingly used as an organic amendment to soil, especially to soil containing little organic matter. However, little is known about utility of this organic amendment with N-enriched or adjusted C:N ratios in soil. We studied the effects of adding of different doses (0, 100, 200 and 300 t ha1) and C:N ratios (3:1, 6:1 and 9:1) of sewage sludge on enzyme activities (b-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase, arylsulphatase and urease) in a clay loam soil at 25 8C and 60% soil water holding capacity. Nitrogen was added in the form of (NH4)2 SO4 solution to the sludge to reduce the C:N ratio from 9:1 to 6:1 and 3:1. The addition of different doses and C:N ratios of the sludge caused a rapid and significant in the enzymatic activities in soils, this increase was specially noticeable in soil treated with high doses of the sludge. In general, enzymatic activities in sludgeamended soils tended to decrease with the incubation time. All activities reached peak values at 30 days incubation and then gradually decreased up to 90 days of incubation. Sewage sludges also the increased available metal (Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) contents in the soils. However, the presence of available soil metals due to the addition of the sludge at all doses and C:N ratios did negatively affect all enzymatic activities in the soils. This experiment indicated that all doses and C:N ratios of sewage sludge applied to soil would have harmful effects on enzymatic activity. Some heavy metals found in sewage sludge may negatively influence soil enzyme activities during the decomposition of the sludge.

The spatial variability of urease activity of surface agricultural soils wıthin an urban area

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., 2005.
Journal of Central European Agriculture 6(2), 161- 166

Abstract

Soil enzymes play a major role in the mineralization processes of organic materials. The soil enzymes originate from animal, plant and microbial sources and the resulting soil biological activity including the metabolic processes of all these organisms. Information on soil enzyme activities used to determine soil microbiological characteristics are very important for soil quality and healthy.

Microbial biomass carbon and basal soil respiration in soil affected by addition of different organic wastes and earthworm L.terrestris

Ekberli, İ., Kızılkaya, R., 2005.
Second Congress of Azerbaijan Soil Science Society on Soil Resources Their Using and Protection. November 10-14, 2005. Baku, Azerbaijan. Book of Proceedings, Vol 2, p.419-426.

Ekberli, İ., Kızılkaya, R., 2005. Microbial biomass carbon and basal soil respiration in soil affected by addition of different organic wastes and earthworm L.terrestris. Second Congress of Azerbaijan Soil Science Society on Soil Resources Their Using and Protection. November 10-14, 2005. Baku, Azerbaijan. Book of Proceedings, Vol 2, p.419-426.

Fındık ve mısırda borlu gübrelemenin verim ve bor kapsamına etkileri

Korkmaz, A., Özdemir, N., Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Horuz, A., 2005.
1. Ulusal Bor Çalıştayı, 28-29 Nisan, Ankara. Bildiriler Kitabı s.125-132.

Özet

Bu çalışmada, Eti Maden İşletmeleri Genel Müdürlüğü tarafından sağlanan bor katkılı gübrenin, Palaz fındık çeşidine toprak ve yapraktan uygulamalarının dane verimine, 100 danenin iç ağırlığına, yaprak ve zurufun B kapsamına ve toprağa uygulanan borun Karadeniz Yıldızı mısır çeşidinde dane verimi ve koçan yaprağının B kapsamına etkileri araştırılmıştır. Ünye-Keşköy'de fındık yapraklarına %0, 0.2 ve 0.4 dozlarında uygulanan bor katkılı gübre dane verimini, 100 danenin iç ağırlığını artırmış, ocak başına 1.5 Lt %O.2'lik bor çözeltisi yeterli olmuştur. Terme- Sakarlı Beldesinde ocak başına O, 6, 12, 18 ve 24 g B dozlarında topraktan bor uygulaması kontrole göre fındık dane verimini artan doz sırasıyla %12.99,57.09, 55.51 ve 42.91 oranında, % 0 ve 0.2 konsantrasyonlarında yapraktan B uygulaması ise %77.56 oranında artırmıştır. Topraktan en uygun dozun 12 g B/ocak olduğu sonucuna varılmıştır. Topraktan ve yapraktan uygulanan borlu gübrenin dane verimi üzerine etkileri toprakların bor kapsamına göre farklı olmuştur. Fındık dane verimi ile yaprağın bor kapsamı (r = 0.632**) ve zurufun bor kapsamı (r = 0.483*) arasında önemli ilişkiler bulunmuştur. Yaprak ve zurufun bor kapsamları 90 ppm'e kadar arttıkça fındık verimi artmış, bu değerden sonra verimde azalma eğilimi gözlenmiştir. Fındığın yaprak B kapsamı ile zurufun B kapsamı arasında (r = 0.883**) önemli, 100 danenin iç ağırlığı arasında ise istatistiksel olarak önemsiz ilişkiler bulunmuştur. Toprağa O - 0.6 - 1.2 - 2.4 - 3.6 ve 4.8 kg B dozlarında uygulanan bor dozları mısırda dane verimini kontrole göre istatistiksel olarak % 1 seviyesinde artan doz sırasıyla % 28.2, 24.1, 23.0, 24.7 ve 24.7 önemli derecede artmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre mevcut tarla şartlarında mısır bitkisine 0.6 kg B/ha dozunda gübreleme tavsiye edilebilir. Ayrıca borlu gübreleme ile koçan yaprağında B kapsamı kontrole göre artış göstermiş, kontrolde 16.4 ppm olan B düzeyi gübreleme ile 22.5 ppm B düzeyine kadar yükselmiştir.

Cu and Zn accumulation in earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. in sewage sludge amended soil and fractions of Cu and Zn in casts and surrounding soil

Kızılkaya, R., 2004.
Ecological Engineering 22(2), 141-151

Abstract

In this study, the bioaccumulation of Cu and Zn by the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris L. and Cu and Zn fractions in casts and surrounding soil of soil amended with different doses of sewage sludge have been explored. The total and fractions of Cu and Zn contents were increased by sewage sludge amendments at all doses. Thirty days after sewage sludge amendment, the soil, cast, and earthworm bodies receiving the highest dose (400 g kg−1) showed significantly higher Cu and Zn content than the non-amended soil. In particular exchangeable (EX)-Zn and organically complexed (OM)-Cu contents of casts and surrounding soil were higher than the other fractions at all sewage sludge amended soils.

Effect of biosolid amendment on enzyme activities in earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) casts

Kızılkaya, R., Hepşen, Ş., 2004.
Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 167(2), 202-208

Abstract

We studied the effect of amendment of biosolids on enzyme activity in soil and earthworm  (Lumbricus terrestris) casts. Enzyme activities and contents of nutrients and organic matter of surrounding soil were compared with the corresponding properties of earthworm casts. This short time experiment was conducted in the laboratory, simulating field conditions of biosolid treatments at 20 ± 0,5 0C. In general, all of doses of biosolid treatments influenced the enzyme activity and contents of nutrients and organic matter of earthworm casts and surrounding soil. Enzyme activity such as urease (UA), alkaline phosphatase (APA) and arylsulphatase (ASA) and the contents of organic matter and nutrients such as N and P in earthworm casts and surrounding soil increased with increasing biosolid application. Without biosolids enzyme activities in cast of L.terrestris exceeded those in the soil. In contrast with biosolid input, DHA in casts was lower than the soil. UA and APA were consistently higher in L.terrestris casts than in soil of all biosolid treatments. Biosolid amendments generally increased ASA at low doses, but at higher doses ASA decreased. In general, organic matter and contents of N and P were higher in surface casts of L.terrestris and soils than in control soil. UA, APA, the contents of organic carbon and nutrients such as N and P in soil and casts were correlated positively. On the contrary, ASA and DHA were negatively correlated with the contents of organic matter and nutrients.

Microbiological characteristics of soils contaminated with heavy metals

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Bayraklı, B., Sağlam, M., 2004.
European Journal of Soil Biology 40(2), 95-102

Abstract

In this study, total heavy metal contents and their relationships with soil microbiological characteristics were investigated in agricultural soils which were with polluted heavy metals. Total heavy metal content of the soils varied from 0.95 to 3.20 μg Cd g–1, 17.10 to 42.33 μg Co g–1, 18.43 to 141.18 μg Cr g–1, 23.05 to 96.68 μg Cu g–1, 19.30 to 144.15 μg Pb g–1 and 76.10 to 210.43 μg Ni g–1. Soil dehydrogenase, catalase and urease activity, basal soil respiration and microbial biomass-C were 23.9–420.4 μg TPF g–1 dry soil, 2.7–61.1 ml O2 5 g–1 dry soil, 16.9–749.3 μg N g–1 dry soil, 4.8–33.7 mg CO2 100 g–1 dry soil and 3.8–135.4 mg CO2–C 100 g–1 dry soil in agricultural soils of Bafra and Çars¸amba Plain, respectively. The soil organic carbon content showed significant correlation with the dehydrogenase activity, catalase activity, basal soil respiration, and microbial biomass-C at P < 0.01. Urease activity was strongly correlated with clay content and cation exchange capacity (CEC), but not significantly correlated with organic C content.With the exception of urease activity, generally significant negative relationships were observed between the total heavy metal contents and soil microbiological characteristics. Thus, these microbiological characteristics could be used as indicators to evaluate the heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils.

Alkaline phosphatase activity of surface agricultural soils within an urban area

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., 2004.
International Soil Congress (ISC) on Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Development, June 7-10, 2004. Erzurum. Turkey. CD of Proceedings, pp.15-21.

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., 2004. Alkaline phosphatase activity of surface agricultural soils within an urban area. International Soil Congress (ISC) on Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Development, June 7-10, 2004. Erzurum. Turkey. CD of Proceedings, pp.15-21.

The spatial variability of soil dehydrogenase activity: A study in pasture soils

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., Özdemir, N., 2004.
International Soil Congress (ISC) on Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Development, June 7-10, 2004. Erzurum. Turkey. CD of Proceedings, pp.7-14.

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., Özdemir, N., 2004. The spatial variability of soil dehydrogenase activity: A study in pasture soils. International Soil Congress (ISC) on Natural Resource Management for Sustainable Development, June 7-10, 2004. Erzurum. Turkey. CD of Proceedings, pp.7-14.

Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi kampüs topraklarının bazı mikrobiyolojik özellikleri

Aşkın, T., Kızılkaya, R., Gülser, C., Bayraklı, B., 2004.
Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 19(1), 31-36.

Özet

Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Kurupelit kampüsü topraklarının bazı mikrobiyolojik özelliklerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla yapılan bu çalışmada, 5 ayrı toprak serisinden ve 0-20 cm derinlikten toprak örnekleri alınmıştır. Alınan toprak örneklerinin üreaz, katalaz ve dehidrogenaz enzim aktiviteleri ile, CO2 üretimi ve mikrobiyal biyomas-C kapsamları belirlenmiştir. Toprakların üreaz aktivitesinin 158.6-234.4 mg N g kuru toprak-1, dehidrogenaz aktivitesinin 132.9-658.6 mg TPF g kuru toprak-1, katalaz aktivitesinin 15.64-36.13 ml O2 5g kuru toprak-1, CO2 üretiminin 26.70-33.72 mg CO2 100 g kuru toprak-ı ve biyomas-C'nin ise 109.9-171.3 mg C 100 g kuru toprak-1 arasında değiştiği saptanmıştır.

Use of enzyme activities as a soil erodobility indicator

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Özdemir, N., 2003.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 73(8), 446-450.

Abstract

A study was carried out to whether soil extracellular enzyme activities can be used as an indicator of soil structural stability and erodibility or not. The relationships between soil erodibility indices (eg erosion ratio, structural stability index, permeability ratio and soil erodibity factor) and extracellular enzyme activities (urease activity, acid and alkaline phosphatase activity) were determined. Alkaline phosphatase and urease activity did not correlate with the soil erodibility indices wheas, the correlation between acid phosphatase activity and soil erodibity indices was significant (P<0.01 or P<0.05).

Influence of cadmium fractions on microbiological properties in Bafra plain soils

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., 2002.
Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science 48(3), 263-272

Abstract

In this study, soil cadmium fractions and their relationships with some microbiological properties were investigated in disturbed twenty soil samples (agricultural area) of Bafra plain in Turkey. Total Cd in the 20 soil samples under study ranged from 1.83 to 2.73 mg  g-1 with an average of 2.32 mg  g-1. A sequential fractionation showed that 7.3–18.5% of total Cd was exchangeable (EX-Cd), 4.1–10.8% was organically complexed (OM-Cd), 6.1–7.6% was associated with Mn oxides (MnO-Cd), 5.2–8.7% was associated with amorphous iron oxides (AFeO-Cd) and 5.8–7.2% was associated with crystalline iron oxides (CFeO-Cd). Most of the total Cd was present in residual (R-Cd) form (54.0–62.1%). In the study, dehyrdogenase activity, catalase activity, urease activity, CO2 production and microbial biomass-C were approximately 205.3 mg TPF /1 g dry soil, 18.5 ml O2/5 g dry soil, 148.7 mg N/1 g dry soil, 14.7 mg CO2/100 g dry soil, 58.5 mg C/100 g dry soil in researched soils. Soil organic carbon contents gave the significant positive correlations with microbiological properties at p<0.01. Microbiological properties of soil samples are affected negatively by EX-Cd and AFeO-Cd rather than the other Cd fractions.

Boron application in sugar beet

Korkmaz, A., Özdemir, N., Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Horuz, A., Aşkın, T., Sürücü, A., Ekberli, İ., Yirmibeşoğlu, B., 2002.
The 13th International Symposium of the International Scientific Centre of Fertilizers. June 10-13, 2002, Tokat, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 3-933140-04-8), pp.164-172.

Korkmaz, A., Özdemir, N., Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Horuz, A., Aşkın, T., Sürücü, A., Ekberli, İ., Yirmibeşoğlu, B., 2002. Boron application in sugar beet. The 13th International Symposium of the International Scientific Centre of Fertilizers. June 10-13, 2002, Tokat, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 3-933140-04-8), pp.164-172.

The relationships between heavy metal contents and microbiological characteristics in Bafra and Çarşamba Plain soils

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Bayraklı, B., Sağlam, M., 2002.
International Conference on Sustainable Land Use and Management, June 10-13, 2002, Çanakkale, Turkey. Book of Proceedings, p.471.

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Bayraklı, B., Sağlam, M., 2002. The relationships between heavy metal contents and microbiological characteristics in Bafra and Çarşamba Plain soils. International Conference on Sustainable Land Use and Management, June 10-13, 2002, Çanakkale, Turkey.  Book of Proceedings, p.471.

Nutrient contents of pistachio trees (Pisticia vera L.) growing in district of Şanlıurfa and the relationship between their microelement deficiency and some soil properties

Kızılgöz, İ., Kızılkaya, R., Açar, İ., Kaptan, H., 2001.
XI GREMPA Seminar on pistachios and almonds. CIHEAM. Volume 56. Book of Proceedings, pp.47-52.

Kızılgöz, İ., Kızılkaya, R., Açar, İ., Kaptan, H., 2001. Nutrient contents of pistachio trees (Pisticia vera L.) growing in district of Şanlıurfa and the relationship between their microelement deficiency and some soil properties. XI GREMPA Seminar on pistachios and almonds. CIHEAM. Volume 56. Book of Proceedings, pp.47-52.

Topoğrafyanın toprakların bazı mikrobiyolojik özelliklerine etkileri

Kızılkaya, R., Yirmibeşoğlu, B., Özdemir, N., Aşkın, T., 2001.
Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 16 (1), 27-34.

Özet

Bu çalışma, farklı topoğrafik pozisyonlar altında oluşmuş toprakların profilleri boyunca mikrobiyolojik özelliklerindeki değişimleri araştırmak ve bazı toprak özellikleri ile olan ilişkilerini incelemek amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Toprak örnekleri, üç farklı pozisyonda bulunan (yüksek, yamaç ve taban arazi) üç toprak profilinin horizonlarından alınmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda toprakların mikrobiyal biyomas, CO2 üretimi ile dehidrogenaz, katalaz ve üreaz enzim aktivitesi kapsamlarının alt toprak horizonlarına inildikçe azaldığı belirlenmiştir. Yapılan  istatistiksel değerlendirmeler sonucunda toprakların mikrobiyolojik özellikleri ile organik madde, pH, toplam tuz ve toprakların kil kapsamları arasında önemli ilişkiler saptanmıştır.

The effects of inoculation of soil with different numbers of bacteria on aggregation

Aşkın, T., Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Özdemir, N., 2000.
International Symposium on Desertification. June 13-17, 2000. Konya, Turkey.  Book of Proceedings (ISBN 975-19-2485-5), pp. 242-246.

Aşkın, T., Gülser, C., Kızılkaya, R., Özdemir, N., 2000. The effects of inoculation of soil with different numbers of bacteria on aggregation. International Symposium on Desertification. June 13-17, 2000. Konya, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 975-19-2485-5), pp. 242-246.

Effects of lead and cadmium compounds on soil catalase enzyme activity

Karaca, A., Kızılkaya, R., Haktanır, K., 2000.
International Symposium on Desertification. June 13-17, 2000. Konya, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 975-19-2485-5), pp. 416-421.

Karaca, A., Kızılkaya, R., Haktanır, K., 2000. Effects of lead and cadmium compounds on soil catalase enzyme activity. International Symposium on Desertification. June 13-17, 2000. Konya, Turkey.  Book of Proceedings (ISBN 975-19-2485-5), pp. 416-421.

The effects of herbicides 2,4-D on total bacteria and Bacillus cereus var. mycoides growth in soil

Kızılkaya, R., 2000.
International Symposium on Desertification. June 13-17, 2000. Konya, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 975-19-2485-5), pp. 541-546.

Kızılkaya, R., 2000. The effects of herbicides 2,4-D on total bacteria and Bacillus cereus var.mycoides growth in soil. International Symposium on Desertification. June 13-17, 2000. Konya, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 975-19-2485-5), pp. 541-546.

Total and DTPA-extractable heavy metal contents in alkaline risky soils of Çarşamba plain

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Gülser, C., Gençoğlu, S., 2000.
Agroenviron 2000. 2nd International Symposium on New Technologies for Environmental Monitoring and Agro-Applications. October 18-20, 2000. Tekirdağ, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 975-374-29-8), pp. 1-7.

Kızılkaya, R., Aşkın, T., Gülser, C., Gençoğlu, S., 2000. Total and DTPA-extractable heavy metal contents in alkaline risky soils of Çarşamba plain. Agroenviron 2000. 2nd International Symposium on New Technologies for Environmental Monitoring and Agro-Applications. October 18-20, 2000. Tekirdağ, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 975-374-29-8), pp. 1-7.

Fan separatörle kurutulmuş tavuk gübresinde azotun bitkiye yarayışlı miktarının N-15 izleme tekniğiyle belirlenmesi

Korkmaz, A., Kızılkaya, R., Horuz, A., Sürücü, A., 2000.
Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 24, 63-70.

Özet

Bu saksı denemesinde Fan separatör kullanılarak kurutulmuş tavuk gübresi farklı dozlarda uygulanmak suretiyle mısır ve çeltik bitkilerinin gelişimi ve azot alımlarına etkisi araştırılmıştır. Araştırmada 15N izleme tekniği kullanılmak suretiyle tavuk gübresinin toprakların A-değerlerine katkısı, mısır ve çeltik bitkilerinde tavuk ve amonyum sülfat gübrelerinden gelen azot %’si (sırasıyla %NdfPM ve %NdfF), bitkilerin tavuk gübresi azotundan yararlanma oranları ve 1 kg (NH4)2SO4 gübresine eşdeğer tavuk gübresi miktarları tesbit edilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar aşağıda özetlenmiştir. 1. Tavuk gübresinin artan azot düzeyleri mısır sap, çeltik dane+sap verimlerini ve mısır ve çeltik azot alımlarını önemli derecede artırmıştır. 2. Tavuk gübresi yarayışlı azot bakımından toprakların A-değerlerine önemli katkı sağlamıştır. Tavuk gübresinin miktarı arttıkça mısır yetiştirilen toprağın A-değeri 66.19’dan 186.70 mg N/kg toprak’a artmış, çeltik yetiştirilen toprağın ise 208.59’dan 382.14 mg N/kg toprak’a artmıştır. 3. Uygulanan tavuk gübresi miktarı arttıkça mısır ve çeltik bitkilerinde amonyum sülfat gübresinden gelen azot %’si (%NdfF) azalmış, bitkilerde tavuk gübresinden gelen azot %’si (%NdfPM) mısırda %14.24’den %47.87’ye çeltikte %9.19’dan %33.54’e artmıştır. 4. Tavuk gübresi azotundan mısır bitkisinin yararlanma oranı maksimum %4.61, çeltiğin yararlanma oranı ise %4.13 bulunmuştur. 5. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre 1 kg amonyum sülfat azotuna eşdeğer tavuk gübresi azotunun miktarı mısır yetiştirilen toprakta 7.74 kg N, çeltik toprağında 9.65 kg N’dir. Bu sonuçlar Fan separatör kullanılarak kurutulmuş ve %3.13 N içeren tavuk gübresinin mısır için 50 kg’ının, çeltik için 62 kg’ının 1 kg amonyum sülfata eşdeğer olduğunu göstermektedir.

Farklı organik atıkların toprakların üreaz enzim aktivitesi üzerine etkisi

Özdemir, N., Kızılkaya, R., Sürücü, A., 2000.
Ekoloji Çevre Dergisi 10(37), 23-26.

Özet

Bu çalışmada, iki farklı toprağa ağırlık esasınaa göre %0, %2.5, %5.0 ve %7.5’u olacak şekilde uygulanan, tütün fabrikasyon atığı, çeltik sapı, fiğ, tavuk gübresi ve şlempe’nin 25±2ºC’de 3 aylık inkübasyon dönemi sonunda toprakların üreaz enzim aktivitesinde meydana getirdiği değiþim araştırılmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre, topraklara uygulanan tütün fabrikasyon atığı, çeltik sapı, fiğ ve tavuk gübresi üreaz aktivitesini önemli düzeyde, şlempe ise önemsiz düzeyde artırmıştır. Organik atıklarınn üreaz aktivitesi üzerinde sağladığı artış Tütün fabrikasyon atığı > Tavuk gübresi > Fiğ > Çeltik sapı > Şlempe şeklinde sıralanmıştır.

The effects of lead, copper and nickel pollution on soil microbiological properties

Kızılkaya, R., 1999.
Popular Science Journal 5, 100-101

Abstract

In order to estimate the effects of lead, copper and nickel pollution on soil microbiological properties, a field survey was carried out with sampling lead, copper and nickel polluted (104.98-305.40 mg Pb/g dry soil, 41.38-181.95 mg Cu/gr dry soil, 38.29-107.94 mg Ni/gr dry soil) and unpolluted (42.91-77.10 mg Pb/g dry soil, 24.21-78.47 mg Cu/gr dry soil, 21.19-44.75 mg Ni/gr dry soil) soils. The results were obtained as follows: The ratio of COı production, dehydrogenase and urease activity in the polluted soils were significantly lower than that in the unpolluted soils. Microbiological properties shows much more tolerance to copper than lead and nickel. Significant negative correlations were determined between microbiological parameters and Pb, Cu, Ni in polluted soils. Alsa, some significant positive correlations were obtained between microbiological parameters and organic C, clay, exchangeable potassium.

Bazı ağır metallerin (Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn) Agrobacterium tumefaciens gelişmesine olan etkilerinin belirlenmesi

Aksoy, H.M., Kızılkaya, R., Maden, S., 1999.
Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 14(2), 55-64.

Özet

Ağır metallerin toprak mikroorganizmaları üzerine olan etkileri, ağır metallerin çeşidine, konsantrasyonuna ve mikroorganizma türüne göre önemli oranda değişmektedir. Bu çalışmada, Agrobacterium tumefaciens üzerine Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Zn ağır metallerinin etkileri araştırılmıştır. Nutrient Glukoz sıvı besi ortamında üretilerek aktivitesi artırılan A. tumefaciens; Cd, Co, Cu, Ni ve Zn'nin 7 farklı konsantrasyonunu (0, 0.5, 1, 10, 25, 50 ve 100 ppm) içeren sıvı besi ortamlarına aşılanarak gelişmeleri 6 saat aralıklarla türbidimetrik olarak belirlenmiştir.  Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, uygulanan ağır metallerin dozları arttıkça A.tumefaciens aktivitesi üzerinde önemli azalma/arın olduğu belirlenmiş olup, dozların ortalama değerleri esas alındığında, A.tumefaciens üzerine en fazla toksisitenin inkübasyonun 18. saatinde ortaya çıktığı belirlenmiştir. Tüm uygulama dozları ve inkübasyon dönemlerinde araştırmada kullanılan ağır metallerin Zn = Co > Cd > Ni > Cu sırası şeklinde A.tumefaciens üzerine toksik etki oluşturduğu saptanmıştır.

Pestisitlerin farklı Bacillus spp. gelişimi üzerine etkilerinin belirlenmesi

Kızılkaya, R., Aksoy, H.M., 1999.
Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 14(3), 76–87.

Özet

Bu çalışmada pestisitlerin farklı konsantrasyonlarının (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 ve 2.5 ppm) Bacillus spp. gelişimi üzerine olan etkileri invitro koşullannda araştırılmıştır. Bakterisitin (Streptomycin)'in tüm uygulama konsantrasyonlarında Bacillus spp. gelişiminin engellendiği, buna karşın insektisit (Karate 5 EC), fungisit (Tachigaren 30 L) ve herbisit (2,4-D) etkilerinin değişkenlik gösterdiği saptanmıştır. B. cereus var. mycoides ve B. pumilus gelişimini insektisit ve fungisitin artırdığı, herbisitin ise azalttığı belirlenmiştir. Toksin üreterek patojen olan B. sphaericus ırk 2362 ve 1593'ün gelişimlerini insektisitin artırdığı, fungisit ve herbisitin ise azalttığı,' buna karşın B. thuringiensis var. israelensis gelişimini ise herbisit ve insektisitin artırdığı, bakterisit ve fungisitin ise azalttığı saptanmıştır.

Mısır ve çeltik bitkisine uygulanan tavuk gübresinin amonyum sülfat gübresine eşdeğer miktarının belirlenmesi

Korkmaz, A., Kızılkaya, R., Horuz, A., Sürücü, A., 1999.
Karadeniz Bölgesi Tarım Sempozyumu, 4-5 Ocak 1999, Samsun. Bildiriler Kitabı Cilt I. s.131-140.

Özet

Bu saksı denemesinde Fan separatör kullanılarak kurutulmuş tavuk gübresi farklı dozlarda uygulanmak suretiyle mısır ve çeltik bitkilerinin gelişimi ve azot alımlarına etkisi araştırılmıştır. Araştırmada 15-N izleme tekniği kullanılmak suretiyle tavuk gübresinin toprakların A-değerlerine katkısı, mısır ve çeltik bitkilerinde tavuk gübresinden gelen azot %'si (%NdfPM), bitkilerin tavuk  gübresi azotundan yararlanma oranları ve 1 kg (NH4)2S04 gübresine eşdeğer tavuk gübresi  miktarları tesbit edilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar aşağıda özetlenmiştir.

1.Tavuk gübresinin artan azot düzeyleri mısır sap, çeltik dane+sap verimlerini ve mısır ve çeltik azot alımlarını önemli derecede artırmıştır.

2.Tavuk gübresi yarayışlı azot bakımından toprakların A-değerlerine önemli katkı sağlamıştır.

3.Tavuk gübresinin miktarı arttıkça mısır yetiştirilen toprağın A-değeri 66.19'dan 186.70 mg N/kg toprak'a artmış, çeltik yetiştirilen toprağın ise 208.59'dan 382.14 mg N/kg toprak'a artmıştır.

4.Uygulanan tavuk gübresi miktarı arttıkça mısır ve çeltik bitkilerinde tavuk gübresinden gelen azot %'si (%NdfPM) mısırda %14.24'den %47.87'ye çeltikte %9.19'dan %33.54'e artmıştır.

5.Tavuk gübresi azotundan mısır bitkisinin yararlanma oranı maksimum %4.61, çeltiğin yararlanma oranı ise %4.13 bulunmuştur.

6.Elde edilen sonuçlara göre 1 kg amonyum sülfat azotuna eşdeğer tavuk gübresi azotunun miktarı mısır yetiştirilen toprakta 7.74 kg N çeltik toprakta 9.65 kg N'dir. Bu sonuçlar Fan separatör kullanılarak kurutulmuş ve %3.13 N içeren tavuk gübresinin mısır için 50 kg'ının, çeltik için 62 kg'ının 1 kg amonyum sülfata eşdeğer olduğunu göstermektedir.

Samsun ili Kürtün vadisinde yetiştirilen şeftali ağaçlarının demir beslenme durumu

Horuz, A., Kızılkaya, R., Sürücü, A., Korkmaz, A., 1999.
Karadeniz Bölgesi Tarım Sempozyumu, 4-5 Ocak 1999, Samsun, Bildiriler Kitabı Cilt II. s. 478-489.

Özet

Bu çalışma Samsun ili Kürtün Vadisinde yetiştirilen şeftali ağaçlarının Fe beslenme  durumlarının belirlenmesi amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Demir klorozuna sebep olabilecek önemli toprak özellikleri ile yaprak numunelerinin klorofil (a+b), aktif Fe, toplam N, P, K, Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn ve Cu içerikleri belirlenmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar aşağıda verilmiştir.

1. Demir klorozu göstermeyen şeftali yapraklarının klorofil (a+b) kapsamlarının (ort. 2.31mg/g) demir klorozu gösterenlere oranla (ort. 0.49 mglg) daha fazla olduğu belirlenmiştir. Benzer şekilde demir klorozu gösteren yaprak örneklerinin toplam ve aktif Fe kapsamlarının (sırasıyla ort. 120.6 ppm ve 12.31 ppm) demir klorozu göstermeyenlere göre ( sırasıyla ort. 133.6 ppm ve 21.63 ppm) daha düşük olduğu saptanmıştır.

2. Yaprakların klorofil (a+b) kapsamları ile aktif Fe arasında pozitif, toplam N, P ve K ile negatif; 0-20 cm toprakta K, Cu ile; 20-40 cm'de K ve Ca ile negatif ilişkiler belirlenmiştir.

3. Yapraklardaki aktif Fe kapsamları ile toplam N, P, K arasında negatif, toplam Fe ile pozitif; 0-20 cm toprakta K, Cu ile negatif; 20-40 cm'de de benzer sonuçlar bulunmuştur.

4. Yaprakların Toplam Fe kapsamları ile 0-20 cm toprakta Mg, Fe ile de pozitif ilişkiler belirlenmiştir.

5. Bölge topraklarında Fe klorozuna en dayanıklı çeşidin, Arap şeftali çeşidi olduğu belirlenmiştir.

Microbiological properties of soils of Harran Plain

Kızılkaya, R., Kızılgöz, İ., Arcak, S., Kaptan, H., Rakıcıoğlu, S., 1998.
M. Şefik Yeşilsoy International Symposium on Arid Region Soil. September 21-24, 1998. Menemen, İzmir, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 975-66629-0-6), pp. 569-574.

Kızılkaya, R., Kızılgöz, İ., Arcak, S., Kaptan, H., Rakıcıoğlu, S., 1998. Microbiological properties of soils of Harran Plain. M. Şefik Yeşilsoy International Symposium on Arid Region Soil. September 21-24, 1998. Menemen, İzmir, Turkey. Book of Proceedings (ISBN 975-66629-0-6), pp. 569-574.

Fındık tarımı yapılan toprakların biyokimyasal aktivite özellikleri ile toprak özellikleri arasındaki ilişkiler

Karaca, A., Kızılkaya, R., Horuz, H., Arcak, S., 1998.
Pamukkale Üniversitesi. Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi 4(3), 813-822.

Özet

Bu araştırmada, Terme - Ünye yöresinde fındık tarımı yapılan topraklarda üreaz, b- Glikosidaz, asit ve alkali fosfataz enzim aktiviteleri belirlenmiş ve bu aktiviteler ile toprakların bazı önemli özellikleri ile, iz element ve ağır metal içerikleri arasındaki ilişkiler ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır. Yapılan regrasyon-korelasyon analiz sonuçlarına göre, üreaz enzim aktivitesi ile organik madde, azot ve ekstrakte edilebilir Cu , asit fosfataz aktivitesi ile organik madde, organik C ve azot arasında pozitif, ekstrakte edilebilir Mn arasında da negatif bir ilişki belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca, alkali fosfataz enzim aktivitesi ile pH, alınabilir P, ekstrakte edilebilir Cu, Zn ve Pb arasında önemli pozitif ilişki bulunmuştur. Toprakların B-Glikosidaz aktivitesi ile toprak özellikleri arasında C/N oranı ve ekstrakte edilebilir Cd miktarı hariç, hiçbir önemli ilişki bulunamamıştır.

Çeltik tarımı yapılan topraklarda enzim aktiviteleri ile toprak özellikleri arasındaki ilişkiler

Kızılkaya, R., Arcak, S., Horuz, A., Karaca, A., 1998.
Pamukkale Üniversitesi Mühendislik Bilimleri Dergisi 4(3), 797-804.

Özet

Bu çalışma, Bafra Ovasında yoğun bir şekilde çeltik tarımı yapılan Üçpınar, Harız, Doğancı, Kaygusuz, Emenli, Sarıköy ve Gelemenağrı köylerinden alınan toprakların enzim aktiviteleri üzerine toprak özelliklerinin etkisini  belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Alınan toprak örneklerinde üreaz, fosfataz, b-glikosidaz ve katalaz enzim aktiviteleri üzerine toprak özelliklerinin etkileri ortaya konulmuştur. Toprakların Üreaz enzim aktivitesi 24.12 ile 39.03 mg N 100 g kuru top-1 arasında değişmektedir. Üreaz enzim aktivitesi ile toprakların organik madde (r = 0.89**), ekstrakte edilebilir Mn (r = 0.74*), değişebilir K (r = 0.73*) ve total P (r = 0.81*) kapsamları arasında pozitif ilişkiler belirlenmiştir. Toprakların Asit fosfataz enzim aktivitesi 3.00 ile 17.44 mg fenol 100g kuru top-1 arasında, alkali fosfataz aktivitesi ise 12.00 ile 25.53 mg fenol 100 g kuru top" arasında değişmektedir.  Asit fosfataz enzim aktivitesi Uzerine, değişebilir Mg (r =0.71*) ve 'ekstrakte edilebilir Cu (r = 0.74*)'ın pozitif yönde; Alkali fosfataz enzim aktivitesi Uzerine ise pH (r=0.73*), değişebilir Ca (0.74*), değişebilir Mg (r = 0.71*), total değişebilir bazik katyonlar (r = 0.79*) ve ekstrakte edilebilir Cu (r = 0.70*)'ın pozitif yönde, total P (r = -0.84**)'un negatifyönde etki ettiği tesbit edilmiştir. b-glikosidaz enzim aktivitesi 1.12 ile 3.64 mg salingen 100 g kuru top-1 arasında değişmekte olup, b-glikosidaz enzim aktivitesi üzerine toprakların ekstrakte edilebilir Zn kapsamları (r = -0.97**) negatif yönde, total değişebilir asidik katyonların (r = 0.70*) ise pozitif yönde etki ettiği saptanmıştır. Toprakların Katalaz enzim aktivitesi 5.25 ile 9.00 mg O2 5 g kuru top-1 arasında  değişmekte olup, katalaz enzim aktivitesi ile toprakların kum (r= -0.92**) ve ekstrakte edilebilir Fe kapsamları (r = -0.85**) arasında negatif, kil (r = 0.82*) ve tuz (r = 0.83**) kapsamları arasında ise pozitif ilişkiler bulunduğu belirlenmiştir.

Çevresel toprak sorunları ve gübrelerin çevre kirliliğine katkısı

Korkmaz, A., Kızılkaya, R., 1998.
Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 13(1), 147-164.

Özet

Bu derleme makalesinde toprak, su ve gübre kullanımının çevreyi hangi boyutlarda etkiledikleri  tartışılmıştır. Konu, toprak erozyonu, toprağın asitleşmesi, drenaj yetersizliği, toprağın  çoraklaşması, toprak kirlenmesi, suların kirlenme si ve ötrofikasyon, sedimentin neden olduğu  kirlenme, N2O'nun ozon tabakasıyla etkileşimi ve sebzelerde nitrat birikimi başlıkları altında  incelenmiştir.

Farklı organik atıkların toprakların biyolojik özelliklerine ve topraktaki Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn ve Ni yarayışlılığına etkileri

Sürücü, A., Kızılkaya, R., Bayraklı, F., 1998.
XIV. Ulusal Biyoloji Kongresi, 7-10 Eylül 1998, Samsun. Bildiriler Kitabı Cilt I. s. 313-323.

Özet

Bu araştırmanın amacı, toprağa uygulanan farklı organik atıkların toprağın bazı biyolojik özelliklerine ve toprağın Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn ve Ni yarayışlılığına laboratuvar şartlarında etkilerini belirlemektir. Bu amaçla, 2 g C/kg toprak hesabıyla öğütülmüş (1 mm incelikte) bitki artıklan 100 gr toprak ile homojen bir şekilde karıştırılmıştır. Daha sonra saksılar tarla kapasitesinde sulanarak 30±2 °C'de 3 ay süre ile inkübasyona bırakılmıştır. İnkübasyon süresince her gün saksılar tartılarak eksilen su tamamlanmıştır. Çeltik sapının ve tütün fabrikasyon atığının C/N oranını 15'e düşürecek miktarda azot, NH4N03 olarak uygulanmıştır. Bu çalışma, Kontrol (K), Çeltik sapı (ÇS), Çeltik sapı+N (ÇS+N), Tütün fabrikasyon atığı (TA), Tütün fabrikasyon atığı+N (TA+N) ve Fiğ (F) bitkisi uygulamalarını içermektedir. Deneme sonunda, toprakların CO2 solunumu, DHG, üreaz, katalaz, asit ve alkali fosfataz, b-glikosidaz  ile Toplam ve DTPA ile ekstrakte edilebilir Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu ve Ni belirlenmiştir. Araştıra sonuçlarına göre, CO2 üretimini, DHG, katalaz ve asit ve alkali fosfatazı en fazla TA+N, üreaz ve b-glikosidaz ı ise Fiğ bitkisi uygulaması artırmıştır. Uygulamaların Fe ve Zn üzerine her hangi bir etkisi olmamıştır. En düşük Cu ve Mn içeriği TA+N uygulamasında en  düşük Ni ise ÇS+N uygulamasında belirlenmiştir. Toprakta belirlenen bazı enzim aktiviteleri ve bazı ekstrakte edilebilir Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu ve Ni arasındaki ilişkilere bakıldığında, DHG ile alkali fosfataz arasında (r= 0.797*) üreaz ile Fe (r= 0.800*) ve katalaz (r= 0.802*) arasında; katalaz ile alkali fosfataz (r= 0.951**) ve asit fosfataz (r= 0.967**) arasında ve asit fosfataz ile alkali fosfataz (r= 0.863*) arasında çok önemli pozitif; alkali fosfataz ile Mn arasında ise çok önemli negatif (r=  0.845*) ilişkiler tespit edilmiştir.

Samsun, Alaçam orman topraklarının bazı biyolojik ve kimyasal özellikleri

Kızılkaya, R., Sürücü, A., Arcak, S., 1998.
XIV.Ulusal Biyoloji Kongresi, 7-10 Eylül 1998, Samsun. Bildiriler Kitabı Cilt I. s. 240-254.

Özet

Bu çalışmada, Samsun Alaçam orman topraklarının bazı kimyasal ve biyolojik özellikleri belirlenerek birbirleri ile olan ilişkileri araştırılmıştır. Toprakların biyolojik  'özelliklerini belirlemek amacıyla üreaz, fosfataz, sakkaraz, katalaz ve dehidrogenaz enzim aktivitelerinin yanı sıra CO2 üretimi miktarları, kimyasal özelliklerini belirlemek amacıyla ise, kireç, organik madde, pH, EC, KDK, değişebilir Na, K, Ca ve Mg, toplam N, NH4-N, N03-N ve yarayışlı P belirlenmiştir. Aynca toprakların toplam element (Fe, Al, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Pb, Ni) konsantrasyonlan ile farklı ekstraksiyon yöntemleri kullanılarak yarayışlı Fe, Cu, Zn kapsamları belirlenmiş ve topraklarm biyolojik özellikleri ile ilişkileri araştırılmıştır. Araştırma materyalini oluşturan toprak örneklerinde toprakların CO2 üretimi ile EC ve KDK; dehidrogenaz aktivitesi ile organik madde; katalaz aktivitesi ile EC, üreaz aktivitesi ile EC, KDK, değişebilir Ca ve yarayışlı Cu; fosfataz aktivitesi ile pH, yarayışlı P ve yarayışlı Fe; sakkaraz aktivitesi ile organik madde ve yarayışlı Zn arasında önemli düzeyde İlişkiler belirlenirken, toprakların biyolojik özellikleri ile toplam element konsantrasyonları arasında ilişki belirlenememiştir.

Tavuk gübresindeki azotun bitkiye yarayışlı miktarının “A-değeri” tekniği ile belirlenmesi

Korkmaz, A., Kızılkaya, R., Sürücü, A., Horuz, A., 1998.
V.Ulusal Nükleer Tarım ve Hayvancılık Kongresi. 20-22 Ekim 1998. Konya. Tebliğ Özetleri Kitabı s.3

Korkmaz, A., Kızılkaya, R., Sürücü, A., Horuz, A., 1998. Tavuk gübresindeki azotun bitkiye yarayışlı miktarının “A-değeri” tekniği ile belirlenmesi. V.Ulusal Nükleer Tarım ve Hayvancılık Kongresi. 20-22 Ekim 1998. Konya. Tebliğ Özetleri Kitabı s.3

Pestisidlerin toprakta tutulmaları

Kızılkaya, R. 1997.
Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 12(1), 131-145.

Özet

Tarımsal üretimi artırma amacına yönelik olarak kullanılan pestisidler, uygulama dozuna, şekline ve formülasyonuna bağlı olarak çevrede ve son depolanma yeri olan toprakta belirli bir davranış şekli ile hareket ederler. Fazla kullanılan miktarları topraklarda birikmekte ve bir kirlilik oluşturmaktadır. Çeşitli şekillerde toprağa bulaşan pestisidler, toprak yapısına bağlı olarak bir takım tutulma mekanizmaları ile toprakta alıkonmaktadır. Toprakta alıkonmayan pestisidler ya yüzey veya drenaj sularıyla yada bitkiler tarafından alınarak besin zincirinde artan konsantrasyonda birikebilmektedir. Bu derleme çalışmasında, pestisidlerin topraktaki davranışları, pestisitlerin toprakta tutulmasını etkileyen faktörler, pestisitlerin adsorbsiyon izotermleri ve pestisitlerin toprakta tutulma mekanizmaları hakkında kaynak taraması yapılmıştır.

Samsun yöresi topraklarında Zn/Cd oranı ve bu oran ile iz element ve ağır metaller (Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb, Ni) arasındaki ilişkiler

Kızılkaya, R., Karaca, A., Arcak, S., 1997.
I. Ulusal Çinko Kongresi, 12-16 Mayıs 1997, Eskişehir. Bildiriler Kitabı s. 501-509.

Özet

Bu çalışmada, Samsun'un Terme, Çarşamba, Tekkeköy ve Ondokuzmayıs ilçelerine bağlı toplam 18 köyden toprak örnekleri alınmıştır. Alınan örneklerin toprak özellikleri belirlendikten sonra, Zn / Cd oranını saptamak amacıyla toplam ve ekstrakte edilebilir çinko ve kadmiyum miktarları belirlenmiştir. Her bir toprakta bulunan diğer iz element (Fe, Cu, Mn) ve ağır metallerin (Pb, Ni) toplam ve ekstrakte edilebilir miktarları da belirlenerek Zn / Cd oranı ile ilişkileri araştırılmıştır. Toprakta Zn miktarının değişimine bağlı olarak Cd miktarında da bir değişimin olduğu belirlenmiştir. Zntoplam/Cdtoplam Oranı 73.556 ile 340.431 arasında, Znekst./Cdeks.oranı 151.428 ile 485.046  arasında değişmekte olup bu değişimlerin istatistiki açıdan %1 düzeyinde önemli olduğu belirlenmiştir.  Zntoplam / Cdtoplam oranı ile toplam iz elemet ve ağır metaller arasındaki ilişki, Pbtoplam >Fetoplam > Mntoplam > Cutoplam > Nitoplam sırası şeklinde olmaktadır. Znekst. / Cdekst. oranı ile ekstrakte edilebilir iz element ve ağır metaller arasındaki ilişki, Pbekst.> Mnekst > Niekst = Cuekst > Feekst sırası şeklinde olmaktadır.

Trifluralin’in nitrifikasyon üzerine etkisi

Kızılkaya, R., Arcak, S. 1996.
Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Dergisi 11(3), 145-154.

Özet

Bu çalışmada, Dinitroanilin grubu selektif herbisidlerden trifluralin'in doz ve zamana bağlı olarak nitrifikasyon üzerine etkenliğini saptamak amacıyla inkübasyon denemesi yapılmıştır. Deneme toprakları Ziraat Fakültesi Kenan Evren Araştırma ve Uygulama Çiftliği, çiftlik serisi topraklarından alınmıştır. Kil bünyeli toprakların pH'sı 7.81, organik madde içeriği %1.78, kireç  kapsamı %19.3.2 ve toplam azot miktarı %0.12'dir. Mutlak kuru madde ilkesine göre 500g deneme toprağına temel gübre olarak bütün saksılara 200 ppm N (NH4S04 formunda), 100 ppm P ve 125 ppm K (KH2P04 formunda) ile beraber 0, 0.4, 0.8, 1.6 ve 3.2 ppm'lik trifluralin verilmiştir. Deneme 25 ±20Cde tesadüf blokları desenine göre 3 yinelemeli olarak yürütülmüştür. Saksıların su düzeyi her gün tarla kapasitesinin % 100'ünde tutulmuştur. Denemenin 1., 5., 10., 20., 40., 80. ve 160.günlerinde toprak örneklerinde NH4-N ve NO3-N belirlenmiştir. Denemenin 40. gününde 0.4 ve 0.8 ppm'lik trifluralin uygulanmış topraklarda NH4+-N miktarı kalmamış, N03'-N miktarı hızla artış göstermiştir. 1.6 ve 3.2 ppm'lik trifluralin uygulanmış topraklarda ise, trifluralin uygulanmamış topraklara oranla daha az bir değişim gözlenmiştir, NH4-N ve NO3-N miktarlarındaki değişim nitrifikasyon sürecinin bir göstergesi olduğuna göre, trifluralin'in düşük ve normal dozları 0.04 ppm ve 0.8 ppm) nitritikasyon olayını hızlandırmış, yüksek dozlan ise (1.6 ppm ve 3.2 ppm) yavaşlatmıştır. Denemenin 80. ve 160. günlerinde tüm deneme topraklarında N03-N miktarının çok az bir kısmı N2'ye dönüşmüştür.

Topraklara ağır metal (Cd, Pb) ilavesinin bazı biyolojik olaylara etkisi

Karaca, A., Turgay, O.C., Kızılkaya, R., Haktanır, K., 1996.
Tarım-Çevre İlişkileri Sempozyumu, 13-15 Mayıs 1996, Mersin. Bildiriler Kitabı s. 111-121.

Özet

Bu çalışmada, kurşun (Pb) ve kadmiyum (Cd) ağır elementlerinin killi bünyeli toprakta  nitrifikasyon, karbondioksit çıkışı ve katalaz enzim aktivitesi üzerindeki etkileri araştırılmıştır. 0, 100, 500 ve 1000 ppm konsantrasyonunda uygulanan Cd, Cd (CH3COO)2.2H20, Pb ise (PbN03)2 şeklinde toprağa verilmiş, 25±2 Co da 60 gün süreyle inkübe edilen topraklar tarla kapasitesinin % 60'ı düzeyinde tutulmuştur. Artan miktarda Cd uygulamasının sonucu olarak inkübasyon süresi içinde nitrata dönüşmeden toprakta kalan amonyum azotu miktarları, kontrol örneklerden çok daha fazla olmuştur. İnkübasyon süresi boyunca nitrat azotu miktarları da Pb dozlarına bağlı olarak artış göstermiştir. Bu da, Pb'un nitrifikasyonu olumsuz şekilde etkilediğini göstermektedir. Altmış günlük inkübasyon süresi içinde topraklara uygulanan Cd ve Pb'un, karbondioksit çıkışı ve katalaz aktivitesi üzerindeki etkileri hem zamana, hem de doza bağlı olarak %1 düzeyinde önemli bulunmuştur.

Verdiği Dersler

  • Günümüz 1999

    Biyolojik Gübreleme

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Bölümü öğrencilerine bahar döneminde verilen seçmeli lisans dersi olup 2 saat teori dersini içermektedir.

  • Günümüz 1999

    Toprak Mikrobiyolojisi ve Biyokimyası

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Bölümü öğrencilerine bahar döneminde verilen zorunlu lisans dersi olup 2 saat teori ve 2 saatlik laboratuvar uygulamasını içermektedir.

  • Günümüz 1999

    Toprak Biyolojisi

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Bölümü öğrencilerine bahar döneminde verilen zorunlu lisans dersi olup 2 saat teori ve 2 saatlik laboratuvar uygulamasını içermektedir.

  • Günümüz 1999

    Mikrobiyoloji

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Toprak Bilimi ve Bitki Besleme Bölümü öğrencilerine güz döneminde verilen zorunlu lisans dersi olup 2 saat teori ve 2 saatlik laboratuvar uygulamasını içermektedir.

  • Günümüz 1999

    Toprak Biyokimyası

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü öğrencilerine güz ve bahar dönemlerinde verilen seçmeli yüksek lisans dersi olup 3 saat teori dersini içermektedir.

  • Günümüz 1999

    Toprak Kirlenmesi

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü öğrencilerine güz ve bahar dönemlerinde verilen seçmeli yüksek lisans dersi olup 3 saat teori dersini içermektedir.

  • Günümüz 1999

    Çevre Sorunları ve Kirlilik Kontrolünde Mikrobiyolojik Etkenler

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü öğrencilerine güz ve bahar dönemlerinde verilen seçmeli yüksek lisans dersi olup 2 saat teori dersini içermektedir.

  • Günümüz 1999

    Toprak Mikrobiyolojisi

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü öğrencilerine güz ve bahar dönemlerinde verilen seçmeli yüksek lisans dersi olup 3 saat teori ve 2 saatlik laboratuvar uygulamasını içermektedir.

  • Günümüz 1999

    Toprak Kirliliğinin Biyolojik Yöntemlerle İyileştirilmesi

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü öğrencilerine güz ve bahar dönemlerinde verilen seçmeli doktora dersi olup 2 saat teori dersini içermektedir.

  • Günümüz 1999

    Toprak Enzimleri

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü öğrencilerine güz ve bahar dönemlerinde verilen seçmeli doktora dersi olup 3 saat teori dersini içermektedir.

  • Günümüz 1999

    Toprak Mikrobiyolojisi ve Biyokimyasında Araştırma Yöntemleri

    Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü öğrencilerine güz ve bahar dönemlerinde verilen seçmeli doktora dersi olup 3 saat teori ve 2 saatlik laboratuvar uygulamasını içermektedir.

Tez Danışmanlıkları

  • 2013 2010

    Murat Durmuş

    “Kombu çayı (kombucha) ve kombu çayı üretim artığı karışık mikroorganizma kültürünün tarımda mikrobiyal gübre olarak kullanılma olanaklarının araştırılması” OMÜ, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Toprak Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Samsun

  • 2012 2009

    Vildan Erci

    “Ekstraselüler toprak enzim aktivitelerinin tayinlerinde kullanılan yöntemlerin karşılaştırılması” Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Toprak Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Samsun

  • 2012 2009

    Tuba Alpaslan

    “Bafra ovasında bazı sodik ve sodiklik riski taşıyan toprakların biyolojik özellikleri” Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Toprak Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Samsun

  • 2012 2009

    Aylin Erkoçak

    Farklı ana materyaller üzerinde oluşmuş toprakların biyopedolojik özellikleri” Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Toprak Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Samsun

  • 2008 2005

    Birsen Uygun

    “Azotobacter spp. ile aşılamanın buğday bitkisinin verim ve besin elementi kapsamına etkisinin saptanması ve biyolojik gübre üretiminde uygun taşıyıcı materyalin belirlenmesi” OMÜ, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Toprak Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Samsun

  • 2010 2004

    F.Şüheyda Hepşen Türkay

    “Fındık zurufu ve arıtma çamurunun solucanlar ile kompostlanması, elde edilen vermikompostun sera ve tarla koşullarında toprakların biyolojik özelliklerinde meydana getirdiği etkilerin belirlenmesi” OMÜ, Fen Bil. Ens. Toprak A.B.D., Doktora Tezi, Samsun

  • 2005 2002

    Neriman Kablan Delge

    “Farklı organik atıkların toprak ve mısır (Zea Mays İndendata) Bitkisinin rizosfer bölgesindeki biyolojik özellikler üzerine etkisi” Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Toprak Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Samsun

  • 2007 2002

    Betül Bayraklı

    “Çinko kirlenmesinin toprakların biyolojik özellikleri üzerine etkisinin belirlenmesi ve kirliliğin fitoremedasyon tekniği kullanılarak giderilmesi”, Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Toprak Anabilim Dalı, Doktora Tezi, Samsun

  • 2004 2001

    F.Şüheyda Hepşen

    “Farklı düzeyde atık çamur uygulanmasının toprağın ve solucan (Lumbricus terrestris) dışkısının biyolojik özelliklerine etkisi” Ondokuz Mayıs Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü Toprak Anabilim Dalı, Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Samsun